Identification de nouvelles cibles pro-apoptotiques dans les leucémies aiguës myéloblastiques

Abstract : Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) is a deadly disease characterized by the clonal expansion and accumulation of hematopoietic stem cells arrested at various stages of development. Clinical research efforts are currently focusing on targeted therapies that induce apoptosis in AML cells such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies (Mylotarg®), proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib)… Natural products such as flavonoids have been reported as anticancer agents due to their antioxidant properties as well as to their possible interactions with signalling cascades. Therefore, flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA) has raised considerable attention since the discovery of its exceptional activity on several murine solid tumours. Unfortunately, these promising properties were not confirmed on human due to differential metabolization between human and mouse. The aim of my PhD was to study effects of monoclonal antibody against aminopeptide-N/CD13 and FAA derivatives, 2’,3-Dinitroflavone-8-acetic (DNFAA ; APN/CD13 inhibitor) and 3,3’-Diamino-4’-methoxyflavone (DD1) on acute myeloid leukaemia cells. My studies have shown that DNFAA does not modify proliferation or survival of LAM primary and cell lines. However, treatment of these cells by CD13 antibodies (MY7, SJ1D1 and WM15) induces apoptosis by triggering extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Regarding the intrinsic pathway, anti-CD13 down-regulate anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and up-regulate the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Morever, PI3K/Akt signalling pathway seems to be associated with this apoptosis. My study about 3,3’-Diamino-4’-methoxyflavone effects on LAM cells has shown that DD1 induces apoptosis by proteasome inhibition and intrinsic and extrinsic pathways induction. DD1 targets p70S6 kinase (a downstream kinase of mTOR) and pro-apoptotic proteins Bad and Bax. Moreover, I have shown p70S6K degradation by caspase 3 during DD1 treatment, a new characteristic shared by DD1 and Bortezomib. As a conclusion, my works demonstrated that CD13 antibodies and a new synthetic flavone are able to induce apoptosis signalling pathway normally impaired on AML cells. Characteristics of these agents deserve to be more deeply analyzed.
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Marion Piedfer. Identification de nouvelles cibles pro-apoptotiques dans les leucémies aiguës myéloblastiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P624⟩. ⟨tel-00781221⟩

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