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Etude de la qualité géomorphologique de modèles numériques de terrain issus de l’imagerie spatiale

Abstract : The production of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) has undergone significant evolution duringthe last two decades resulting from a growing demand for scientific as well as industrial purposes.Many Earth observation satellites, using optical and radar sensors, have enabled the production ofDEMs covering most of the Earth’s surface. The algorithms of image and point cloud processing havealso undergone significant evolution. This progress has provided DEMs on different scales, which canfulfill the requirements of many users. The applications based on geomorphology have benefitted fromthis evolution. Indeed, these applications concentrate specifically on landforms for which the DEMconstitutes a basic data.The aim of this study is to assess the impact of the parameters of DEM production byphotogrammetry and InSAR on position and shape quality. The position quality, assessed by DEMproducers, is not sufficient for the evaluation of shape quality. Thus, the evaluation methods ofposition and shape quality and the difference between them are described. A novel method of internalvalidation, which does not require reference data, is proposed. Then, the impact of image matchingand interferometric processing parameters as well as resampling, on elevation and shapes, is assessed.Finally, we conclude on recommendations on how to choose the production parameters correctly,particularly for photogrammetry.We observe little impact from most of the parameters on the elevation, except InSAR parameters.On the other hand, there is a significant impact on the elevation derivatives. The impact of matchingparameters presents a strong dependence on the terrain morphology and the landcover. Therefore,these parameters have to be selected by taking into account these two factors. The effect ofinterferometric processing manifests by phase unwrapping errors that mainly affect the elevation andless the derivatives. The interpolation methods and the mesh size present a small impact on theelevation and a significant impact on the derivatives. Indeed, the value of the derivatives and theirquality depend directly on the mesh size. The selection of this size has to be made according to theforeseen application. Finally, we conclude that these parameters are interdependent and can havesimilar effects. They must be selected according to the foreseen application, the terrain morphologyand the landcover in order to minimize the error in the final results and the conclusions.
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Mhamad El Hage. Etude de la qualité géomorphologique de modèles numériques de terrain issus de l’imagerie spatiale. Autre. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CNAM0846⟩. ⟨tel-00780682⟩

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