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L'île de La Réunion sous l'œil du cyclone au XXème siècle. Histoire, Société, et catastrophe Naturelle.

Abstract : We are presently introducing an overall history of cyclones in Reunion, taking all their components into account (i.e. the geographic, social, economic, cultural ones). Natural hazards have been and remain the exclusive privilege of hard science. However, historians' scientific contributions shouldn't be neglected. More precisely, their investigation methods to understand how, depending on the eras, a human society lives and manages catastrophic events, and how it adapts to the situation and/or dreads the risks, are highly valuable. Precisely, it comes to us to investigate the definitions of risk and vulnerability given by the Reunionese society, definitions that vary in time and space, depending on human groups and their lifestyles. These definitions take the events - the facts - into account. For example, cyclone Jenny (02-28-1962) revealed a fragile society, in search of a change. More than ever, this story displays the mutations of a society fighting against a meteorological hazard, an almost permanent threat weighing upon the territory. So, our thesis presents a social and environmental analysis of cyclones history into Reunion Island society: Our purpose is to estimate the impact of a destructive event, the cyclone, on the collective and individual memory, upon sciences and technology evolution, crisis management, emergency services organisation and area development. Then, cyclone can entirely be an object of History. At the same time, we aim to understand cyclones consequences from a geographical and human point of view. Cyclones impact can be different, depending on the place or housing conditions and the way that they evolve in the time. Moreover, history of human behaviour bring other elements to our enquiry: mutual assistance integrate this world area in a national and international context, with help request to French metropolis and others countries. We must take administration and civil services into account in the island management and in the choices to be made, as far as prevention, information or mobilization are concerned. Among outstanding cyclones of the XXth century, January the 26th and 27th of 1948 cyclonic system is usually considered as "the cyclone of the century". However, the cyclone "Jenny" (February the 28th of 1962), by its contributions, could be considered as a starting point of a half century of mutations. And then a cut into history of Reunion Island society. The final aim of our research is to contribute to a progress of a collective consciousness of cyclones in order to limit human and material damages.
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Isabelle Mayer Jouanjean. L'île de La Réunion sous l'œil du cyclone au XXème siècle. Histoire, Société, et catastrophe Naturelle.. Histoire. Université de la Réunion, 2011. Français. ⟨tel-00780487⟩

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