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Manipulation dans le micro/nanomonde : dispositif haptique préhensile

Abstract : The synchrotron radiation and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) are the (two) most used techniques to study the physical and chimical properties of nanostructures. Coupling these two techniques is promising for the nanosciences by opening news horizons. From an experimental point of view, this coupling is an exciting challenge and has already proven its skills with the combination of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and X-Ray diffraction during the X-tip project, which, thanks to the development of an atomic force microscope embended on a synchrotron beamline, has permitted to study Young's modulus of germanium microplots proceeding simultaneously with its indentation and its diffraction analysis. However, this configuration doesn't permit a three dimension (3D) manipulation. The ultimate goal, for our nano-manipulator, is to manipulate in 3D with a permanent control of nano-forces exerted on the object undcer a scanning beam (X-Ray, laser). The first chapter therefore focuses on the sensors which measure the interactions at a nanometer scale and permit the seizure of an individual object. After an overview of the differents techniques of micro/nano-manipulation available today ( mechanical micro-grippers based on MEMS technology, optic tweezers, grippers based on conventionnal atomic force microscopy), and in front of the constraints implied by the coupling of this kind of system with the synchrotron experiments, the choice of quartz oscillators (Tunning fork and LER) as sensors is explained. The atomic force microscopy in general and the particular behavior of these oscillators is described. In the second chapter, the instrumental development of our nano-manipulation station is detailed and especially : How to implement this type of resonators and the associated tip to achieve both AFM imaging of the sample and gripping of the object ? How to control the coarse and fine positionning of the three elements of a nano-manipulation ? Finally, the haptic system ERGOS et its coupling with our assembly is describe. In the last chapter, two types of experiments are presented : the first involves only our assembly piloted classically with a computer and show its skills in the achievement of gripping of micrometric objects in a controled way. The second involves the coupling between our assembly and the haptic system to achieve the fast exploration of a sample and also the location and shape recognition of sub-micronic objects. These experiments reflect the capacities of this coupling to directly transmit to an user the interactions at a nanometer scale and also the possibility using this interface to achieve complex tasks : manipulation on a surface, shape recognition and contour tracking.
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Antoine Nigues. Manipulation dans le micro/nanomonde : dispositif haptique préhensile. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENY041⟩. ⟨tel-00780206⟩

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