Devenir de polluants émergents lors d'un traitement photochimique ou photocatylitique sous irradiation solaire

Abstract : Industrialisation, the use of numerous chemical products in domestic activities and the use of medicine drugs have led to the release in the environment of various substances named "emerging pollutants”. The existing wastewater treatments are not designed to eliminate this kind of pollution and then these pollutants are released into the natural aquatic media. To limit the release of these compounds by waste water treatment plant effluent, a solution could be the use of additional treatment processes such as advanced oxidation processes. In this context, the European project Clean Water has started in 2009. Clean Water involves 7 entities including the GEPEA laboratory-Ecole des Mines de Nantes. The aim of the Clean Water project is to develop sustainable and cost effective water treatment and detoxification processes using TiO2 nanomaterials with UV-visible light response under solar light. These processes act to remove emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptors and pharmaceuticals. In this program, theGEPEA laboratory is concerned with the evaluation of the efficiency of novel photocatalysts under UV and visible irradiations for the elimination of emerging pollutants. For this purpose, an experimental methodology was established to express the efficiency of the tested catalysts in terms of degradation kinetic constants, pollutants conversion and mineralisation and also in terms of the intermediate products formed. The efficiency of photocatalysts is also evaluated in terms of intermediates biodegradability, toxicity and endocrine disruption effects. First, the experimental methodology was tested on the degradation of tetracycline with a reference catalyst. Then, it was applied to the degradation of bisphenol A and estradiol respectively with the reference catalyst and the catalysts developed within the Clean Water Project. The results obtained on the tetracycline degradation have showed that: i) tetracycline intermediate products are less toxic than tetracycline ii) the intermediates structure is similar to that of tetracycline, this can explain the low biodegradability observed for these intermediates. For the degradation of bisphenol A and estradiol, the results showed that: i) the photocatalysts are efficient under simulated solar irradiation. However, the catalyst photocatalytic efficiency depends on the compound to be degraded ii) the nature of the bisphenol A reaction intermediates identified depends on the catalyst used iii)the estrogenic effect of the estradiol treated solution persists during the photocatalytic treatment.
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Vanessa Maroga Mboula. Devenir de polluants émergents lors d'un traitement photochimique ou photocatylitique sous irradiation solaire. Génie des procédés. Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012EMNA0061⟩. ⟨tel-00779791⟩

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