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Theses

Rôle d'OPA1 dans le fonctionnement et l'architecture des cellules musculaires striées et dans la réponse à un stress

Abstract : ADOA-1 (Autosomal dominant optic atrophy) is a neurological disease that can be caused by mutations in mitochondrial protein OPA1 (Optic atrophy type 1) and can lead to blindness. Some patients with OPA1 mutations may have a generalized mitochondrial dysfunction, and may develop additional neuromuscular complications (ADOA-1+). OPA1 protein is a GTPase dynamin involved in mitochondrial dynamics by controlling the fusion of inner membranes, and also in the maintenance of mitochondrial functions. The role of this protein has been studied in many cell types, but only few studies have been done on cardiac cell, which nevertheless has many mitochondria.The first question raised by this thesis was to determine the involvement of OPA1 protein in mitochondrial network organization and the functioning of the cardiac cell in physiological or pathological condition. To answer this, we used a mouse model heterozygous for Opa1 (Opa1+/-). We have shown that in adult cardiomyocytes, a decrease expression of OPA1 induces an imbalance fusion/fission, which results in a disruption of mitochondrial network, as well as alteration of the morphology of mitochondria. However, these changes did not alter oxidative capacities, but leads to a disturbance of PTP opening. Additionally, OPA1 deficiency did not affect cardiac function under physiological conditions, but it is associated with a stronger impairment of cardiac function in pathological condition.The 2nd part of this thesis was to determine the involvement of OPA1 in response to physiological stress in cells of skeletal muscle, and thus to study the possible link between OPA1 and mitochondrial biogenesis activation. For this, we submitted our Opa1+/- mice to an exercise training. Our results showed that both groups of animals were able to perform the same physical activity. The adaptation of Opa1+/- mice to training did not involve mitochondrial biogenesis and led to a specific response involving a metabolic remodelling towards higher fatty acids utilization.In conclusion, our results allowed us a better understanding of OPA1 role in striated muscle and its involvement for adaptation to a stress. This work opens new perspectives on the role of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiac and muscle cells and during adaptation to a stress
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Fanny Caffin. Rôle d'OPA1 dans le fonctionnement et l'architecture des cellules musculaires striées et dans la réponse à un stress. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA114863⟩. ⟨tel-00778884⟩

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