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Variabilité des blazars détectés par le télescope spatial Fermi-LAT Etude de 3C 454.3 et développement d'une méthode de génération de courbes de lumière optimisées.

L. Escande 1
1 GLAST
CENBG - Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan
Abstract : The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched on 2008 June 11, carrying the Large Area Telescope(LAT), sensitive to gamma-rays in the 20 MeV - 300 GeV energy range. The data collected since then allowed to multiply by a factor of 10 the number of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) detected in the GeV range. Gamma-rays observed in AGNs come from energetic precesses bringing into play very high energy charged particles. These particles are confined in a magnetized plasma jet rising in a region close to the supermassive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. This jet moves away with velocities as high as 0.9999c, forming in many cases radio lobes on kiloparsec or even megaparsec scales. Among the AGNs, those whose jet inclination angle to the line of sight is small are called blazars. The combination of this small inclination angle with relativistic ejection speeds leds to relativistic effects : apparent superluminal motions, amplification of the luminosity and modification of the time scales. Blazars are characterized by extreme variability at all wavelengths, on time scales from a few minutes to several months. A temporal and spectral study of the most luminous of those detected by the LAT, 3C 454.3, was done so as to constrain emission models. A new method for generating adaptive-binning lightcurves is also suggested in this thesis. It allows to extract the maximum of information from the LAT data whatever the flux state of the source.
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L. Escande. Variabilité des blazars détectés par le télescope spatial Fermi-LAT Etude de 3C 454.3 et développement d'une méthode de génération de courbes de lumière optimisées.. Phénomènes cosmiques de haute energie [astro-ph.HE]. Université de Bordeaux1, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00778628⟩

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