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Caractérisation des phénomènes d’érosion et de dispersion : développement d’essais et applications pratiques

Abstract : Erosion Erosion processes are the major cause of failures in hydraulic earthworks such as levees and earth dams. They affect as well many structures including transport infrastructure embankments or foundations of bridge piers. Erosion phenomena are complex processes depending on multiple parameters. It is therefore essential to characterize them through direct measurements. Two principal mechanisms of erosion are generally distinguished on earthworks: internal erosion and overtopping. Dispersivity of the soil is also an important factor in these processes. The present work studies these phenomena using three experimental devices: the Hole Erosion Test (HET), which examines the enlargement of a circular channel simulating internal erosion (piping), the Mobile Jets Erosion Test (MoJET) that erodes the by jets perpendicularly to soil surface by analogy to surface erosion and the Enhanced Crumb Test (ECT) which quantifies the disintegration potential of a soil texture in the absence of mechanical loads. In the first part, we were interested in developing and improving these three experimental devices, their testing protocol and interpretation methods for a more relevant application on earthworks. Thus, for the HET, a new interpretation method independent of the hydraulic flow is proposed. The device has also been adapted to perform tests on undisturbed soil samples and the ranges of stresses have been extended to make the test applicable from highly sensitive sediments to highly resistant soils. The MoJET device was used to perform series of tests on problematic earthworks with a revised procedure. At last, the Crumb Test has been enhanced to perform quantitative monitoring of disaggregation of soil specimens in water and a protocol has been defined for conducting tests on reconstituted or undisturbed soil specimens. In the second part, the different test methods were applied to two practical studies. The first study focuses on the application of lime treatment to hydraulic earthworks. It has been found through series of tests in the laboratory and on experimental earthworks that the application of such treatment technique reduces significantly the sensitivity to erosion of soils. The second study examined the influence of water salinity (pore water or eroding/permeant water) on erosion and dispersion. The use of different tests led to discuss the influence of several parameters and characterize the behavior of soils in various aspects of erosion processes
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Iman Haghighi. Caractérisation des phénomènes d’érosion et de dispersion : développement d’essais et applications pratiques. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST1133⟩. ⟨tel-00778066⟩

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