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Approche multimodale de la mobilité urbaine : développement d'un outil d'aide à la prise de décision

Abstract : The automobile has without a doubt facilitated personal mobility, and as such has allowed people to act directly upon the constraints associated with travel duration. This has brought about an evolution of cities that can be characterised by self sustaining processes, such as urban sprawl, increasing specialisation of urban zones, and an increa se in traffic. Conventional mass transit (subway, tramway, light rail), being the only alternative to the automobile, is difficult to adapt to the above reality, that is to respond to a mobility demand that varies in time and space. In this context, a CTS is presented as an alternative technological solution, able to respond to the new reality of individualised mobility requ irements by offering a continuous on demand service of shared, automated vehicles, running on a common network of pathways. If the automobile is synonymous with individual freedom, then in contrast its preferred useleads to adestabilisation ofthemobilitysystem,which in turn leads to the phenomenon of traffic congestion. Oppositely, mass transit systems operate in an extremely stable fashion by subjecting passengers to its inflexible mode of operation (fixed routes and schedules) . The CTS mobility system dynam ic is very different to the previous two modes of operation, in that it is based on its ability to anticipate requirements, as well as on the vehicle configuration in the network to adequately respond to individual requests made from various stations within the urban perimeter covered. The results of this work have shown that individual travel needs can be considered as a chaotic phenomenon. Reconstruction of the 7 dimensional embedding space associated with the time series of travel needs for a building located in the city centre of Montreal enables the reconstruction of the requirement profile over 2 minute intervals of time, from events that were previously recorded. Based on the capacity of the vehicles in a CTS to make use of all the available pathways, and knowing the identity of the departure and arrival stations prior to travel, the maximum entropy principle can be applied in order to identify the individual vehicle routes over the network. The application of this principle, developed from equations of statistical entropy and information theory, allows the distribution of vehicles over the network under the constraint of respecting passengers' requests, and so minimising the phenomenon of congestion. By taking a dynamic approach to the evolution of the system, vehicle configuration over a CTS modifies itself in response to requests and must be able to reorganise in order to satisfy future requirements. By analogy with natural systems, the application of the principles of thermodynamics (enthalpy and entropy) allows the formulation of a relationship between the need to travel and the system state. The results of thi s work elucidate the principle of a vehicle configuration over the network based on criteria that characterise the global system st at e rather than on criteria of proximity and travel distance. The results obtained through the application of the behavioural laws of natural systems (such as chaotic phenomena and thermodynamics) can be integrated into a model. This model, used as a tool for demonstration, enables the portrayal of the dynamic functionality, which on one hand animates the system, and on the other hand assures coherence in order to satisfy individual needs over time and space. The ability of a CTS to adapt itself to the characteristics of the environment in which it is placed allows the generation of a synergy with conventional transport systems,andresultsinthe diversification ofmasstransportservicesable toadapt to the multiple dimensions of individual mobility requirements. Finally, the procedure developed in this work marks a paradigm shift in the field of mass transit by giving preference to a variety of means (multiple modes and routes) in order to reach a destination, rather than the singular means that is mass transport. This paradigm shift also has appeal in the field of urban planning, where a multifunctional arrangement of urban zones favours local diversified accessibility.
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Mathias Glaus. Approche multimodale de la mobilité urbaine : développement d'un outil d'aide à la prise de décision. Sciences de l'environnement. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne; Université de Montréal, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007EMSE0008⟩. ⟨tel-00777775⟩

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