Estimation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre à différentes échelles en France à l’aide d’observations de haute précision

Abstract : The aim of my PhD is to use high precision measurements to evaluate greenhouse gas emissions at different scales in France, from local to regional. These measurements are made in the framework of the French greenhouse gases network operated by the RAMCES team. Three stations in France are equipped with gas chromatography measurement systems located at Gif-sur-Yvette, Trainou (Orléans forest) and on the summit of Puy-de-Dôme. They were optimized to measure continuously with high precision the main greenhouse gases: CO2 , CH4 , N2O and SF6. In July 2010, I have installed the gas chromatograph at Puy-de-Dôme and I present here the analysis of the past two years. I used an approach with measurements of greenhouse gases and related trace gases to constrain the emissions of greenhouse gases at different scales. At a regional scale, I used the 222Rn as an air mass tracer to quantify the monthly N2O fluxes at Gif-sur-Yvette and Trainou. Annual N2O emissions, derived from the atmospheric approach at Gif-sur-Yvette and Trainou are 0.34/0.51 and 0.52 g(N2O) m−2 a−1 , respectively. I found a clear seasonal cycle of N2O emissions with larger values in spring and summer, demonstrating the large contribution of agricultural emissions from fertilized soils. A correlation between annual N2O fluxes and annual precipitations was observed at Gif-sur-Yvette. At a local scale, I used carbon isotopes to estimate the fossil fuel CO2 contribution. Measurements were performed during a campaign in winter 2010 in Paris. Atmospheric 14 CO2 measurements showed that 77 % of total CO2 emissions are anthropogenic with a significant contribution of biospheric fluxes (23 %). Additionally, 13CO2 analysis showed that natural gas and fuel combustion amounted to 70 % and 30 %, respectively, of fossil fuel emissions.
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Morgan Lopez. Estimation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre à différentes échelles en France à l’aide d’observations de haute précision. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112284⟩. ⟨tel-00777476⟩

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