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Evaluation de la performance des digues de protection contre les inondations Modélisation de critères de décision dans un Système d'Information Géographique

Abstract : More and more floods occurred over the last decade in France and in the world, causing important damages and significant costs. Moreover, levees are often not well maintained, so they hardly resist to major floods and can break easily. These failures increase flood consequences. At french national scale, the length of levees, estimated to 7500 kilometers, and the lack of data all along these infrastructures complicates their management. At a local manager scale, the aim is to optimise maintenance operations. In fact, a levee manager has generally not a sufficient budget to lead all needed maintenance operations. The huge length of these linear infrastructures brings up the following issue: which section of the levee, on one hand has to be inspected, improved and maintained and, on the other hand, to optimise budget distribution? In this frame, levee managers need approaches and tools in order to be helped in their maintenance decision. A first Geographic Information System (GIS) called " SIRS Digues ", is developed. It contains detailed data about infrastructures: levee localisation at a scale of 1/10.000ème and data about levees (constitution, degradations, pipe and street networks...). However, in the current version of this software, levee performance can not be assessed. The goal of our research is to develop methods allowing the assessment of levees performance. From data collected (detailed visual inspections, laboratory tests, historical data, etc.), we establish indicators able to assess levee condition and performance. Our approach contains three main steps: * analysing and modeling levees failure mechanisms with a functional model build up from Functionnal Analysis (FA) and Failure Modes and Effetcs Analysis (FMEA), represented with causal graphs and fault trees representation; * establishing of performance indicators according to each failure mechanisms, with the use of criteria and a multicriteria decision method: the affectation based on aggregation rules; * integrating the levee performance assessment multicriteria model into the SIRS Digues in order to vizualise levee performance on charts. After showing an application of all these methods on a real levee, we suggest some future developments according to this research. The principal one is the development of an operational tool allowing to assist levee managers in their maintenance operations.
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Damien Serre. Evaluation de la performance des digues de protection contre les inondations Modélisation de critères de décision dans un Système d'Information Géographique. Etudes de l'environnement. Université de Marne la Vallée, 2005. Français. ⟨tel-00777220⟩

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