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La cohésion des chromatides sœurs chez Escherichia coli

Abstract : In bacteria, the segregation of the chromosome is initiated during the replication phase. Time lapse experiments, used to watch the dynamic of loci during cell cycle, showed, in Escherichia coli, that the sister loci remain colocalized for a significant amount of time in the macrodomain regions of the chromosome and for shorter period in the Non Structured regions. We asked the following question: does this colocalization step reveal a real cohesion between the sister chromatids? To answer, we have developed a genetic tool, alternative to cell biology tools, to measure the distance between sister chromatids directly. The frequency of intermolecular recombination mediated by Cre recombinase loxP sites located on sister chromatids was measured for various loci. From this frequency we were able to deduce the proximity of sister chromatids. We revealed that sister loci remained in close proximity for a short period following replication. We called this step molecular cohesion, it is dependent on the considered locus. We showed that factors that promote colocalisation of sister foci do not necessarily increase the ability of sister loci to recombine. Indeed, the MatP protein, an actor of macrodomain Ter colocalisation, does not affect the cohesion between the two copies of this region. The TopoIV is essential for the segregation of chromosomes. In its absence, the chromosomes can not segregate and remain colocalized in the cell. We reveal by recombinaison assy that the absence of Topoisomerase IV revealed an increase of interactions between sister chromatids. To conclude, we have shown that the cohesion step is different from the colocalisation step, the molecular mechanisms differ from one stage to another and précaténation links take part in the post-replicative cohesion between sister chromatids
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 15, 2013 - 3:57:42 PM
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Emmanuelle Gigant. La cohésion des chromatides sœurs chez Escherichia coli. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112347⟩. ⟨tel-00776480⟩

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