Applications d'une modulation pharmacologique des dérives des formes réactives de l'oxygène pour une optimisation thérapeutique des patients traités par chimiothérapie

Abstract : Reactive oxygen species (ROS) forms have an established role in oncogenesis and tumor cell function by increasing the capacity of proliferation and cell invasion. ROS have a lower toxicity in normal cells where the level of oxidative stress is low and redox systems operational. Pharmacological modulation of redox balance enhances the effectiveness of cytotoxic molecules that act on the FRO. The anti-tumor activity of chemotherapy is mediated in part by oxidative stress, we initially interested in the changes of oxidative stress during treatment with sorafenib (Nexavar©), an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases. We have demonstrated anti-tumor activity of sorafenib due to increased production of superoxide anion by cells. This allowed us to identify a predictive marker of efficacy of sorafenib dosing Products Advanced Oxidation Protein (AOPP) in the serum of patients with cirrhosis develop hepatocellular carcinoma. Knowing that the antitumor efficacy of conventional chemotherapy is partly through the induction of ROS, we are interested in a second time mangafodipir, a modulator of oxidative stress, which is known to increase the therapeutic index of cytotoxic agents in vivo. Mangafodipir reduces the toxic effects of oxidative stress in non-tumor cells and potentiates the anti-tumor activity of oxaliplatin. These data led us to explore in vivo and in vitro the mechanism of neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin and the protective role of mangafodipir. We observed in a mouse model that mangafodipir prevents neurotoxicity induced by oxaliplatin in the myelin sheath. We confirmed these results in humans in a phase II study. Given the higher levels of ROS in tumor cells compared to normal cells, several strategies have been proposed to selectively target tumors without damaging healthy tissue with modulators of oxidative stress. Our third area of work has aimed to identify and validate novel molecules related to the modulation of ROS. This study was conducted as part of a project of the European Pierre et Marie Curie (International Training Network 7-FP7-2007-1-1-ITN201114) within the network REDCAT. This collaboration has led to the design and synthesis of new therapeutic agents, organochalcogenes. We have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo antitumor potential of this new therapeutic class and mainly composed of the LAB027. LAB027 the present anti-tumor activity alone or in combination with oxaliplatin. All of this work has allowed us to consider the early assessment of the effectiveness of sorafenib a marker of oxidative stress, the AOPP, highlight the anti-nerve of a superoxide dismutase mimetic, mangafodipir and identify a new class of drugs in oncology, organochalcogènes. These optimizations allow therapeutic consider better care of patients treated with chemotherapy to enhance the efficacy of treatments used in oncology.
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Romain Coriat. Applications d'une modulation pharmacologique des dérives des formes réactives de l'oxygène pour une optimisation thérapeutique des patients traités par chimiothérapie. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05T038⟩. ⟨tel-00776282⟩

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