Influence de la présence et de la composition du microbiote intestinal sur le développement et la prévention des allergies alimentaires

Stéphanie Morin 1
1 LI2A - Laboratoire d'immuno-allergie alimentaire
SPI - Service de Pharmacologie et Immunoanalyse : DRF/JOLIOT, INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Abstract : The development of allergic responses can be influenced by the gut microbiota, which critically stimulates the maturation of the host immune system during colonization of the digestive tract at birth. We thus aimed to study the impact of the gut microbiota on the development of an allergic sensitization to cow's milk proteins by using a gnotobiotic BALB/c mouse model. First, we showed that germ-free (GF) mice are more responsive than conventional mice (CV) to the immunogenic and allergenic potential of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and casein (CAS) when these proteins are injected intraperitoneally without adjuvant. With another model of oral sensitization to cow’s milk, the development of higher BLG-specific IgE responses in GF mice compared to CV mice was confirmed. We also observed that the mechanisms leading to oral sensitization to BLG and CAS are differentially affected by the absence of gut microbiota. Furthermore, a delayed colonization of the digestive tract of 6-week-old GF mice by a conventional microbiota was studied. The conventionalized mice (CVd) still developed, after sensitization, higher antibody responses than those measured in CV mice. In contrast, GF mice conventionnalized just after weaning, at 3 week of age, displayed a level of sensitization lower than that of CV mice. Differences in the gut microbiota composition evidenced between CVd and CV mice could also play a role in the lower level of sensitization of CVd mice. Finally, we evaluated the impact of the neonatal mono-colonization of mice by a strain of Lactobacillus casei. The antibody responses against CAS, but not against BLG, were then significantly higher in mono-associated mice than in GF mice. These studies suggest that the influence of microbiota on the development of sensitization to cow's milk proteins depends on the nature of the allergens and the mode of exposure. These results also underline that delayed bacterial colonization altered persistently the host immune response to oral sensitization against food antigens.
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Stéphanie Morin. Influence de la présence et de la composition du microbiote intestinal sur le développement et la prévention des allergies alimentaires. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P622⟩. ⟨tel-00772775⟩

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