Microscopie hyperspectrale dans le proche IR pour l’analyse in situ d’échantillons : l’instrument MicrOmega à bord des missions Phobos Grunt, Hayabusa-2 et ExoMars

Abstract : The characterization of the surface of planetary objects, through space observations, gives key clues to the past and present geological, geochemical and climate processes. Near-infrared hyperspectral microscopy, through its capability to identify the molecular and mineralogical composition of a sample at its grain size, is an innovative technique that will efficiently complement both remote sensing and in situ measurements. Recent technical achievements in near-infrared detectors, space cryo-coolers and dispersive systems, has enabled us to design MicrOmega, a highly miniaturized near-infrared hyperspectral microscope, to be implemented on landers/rovers: it has been selected within the Pasteur payload of the ESA ExoMars rover, with launch scheduled for 2018.My thesis activity started with the study of the extension of the spectral range beyond 2.5 µm, driven by the goal of identifying and characterizing potential organic compounds, and with the analysis of the impact on the instrument design of such an extension. The outcomes were used to set the MicrOmega / ExoMars instrument baseline. My involvement in this program included the development of algorithms enabling, in an automated way, the identification and the location, within the analyzed samples, of compounds with specific composition; it will be used both to limit the amount of information to be downloaded, and to indicate key targets for point analyzers, such as the Raman spectrometer RLS and the laser desorption spectrometer MOMA, thus increasing the synergy between the suite of ExoMars laboratory instruments. During my thesis, the shift of the launch of the Phobos Grunt mission opened the possibility to develop and deliver a flight model of MicrOmega, in less than two years; I thus have been involved in all steps of its development, from its design to its final calibration. As a follow-up, another mission of opportunity emerged, to which I have also been associated: MicrOmega has been selected as part of the Hayabusa-2 mission, which will in situ analyze a C-type asteroid.
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Cédric Pilorget. Microscopie hyperspectrale dans le proche IR pour l’analyse in situ d’échantillons : l’instrument MicrOmega à bord des missions Phobos Grunt, Hayabusa-2 et ExoMars. Autre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112293⟩. ⟨tel-00772234⟩

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