Mémoire sociale et pensée sociale : Etudes empiriques de leurs influences croisées

Abstract : This thesis proposes to update and extend the main contributions of the founders of the concept of collective memory: Halbwachs (1925/1992, 1941/2008, 1950/1997) and Bartlett (1932/2003) in the theoretical framework of Social Thinking (Rouquette 1973, 2009). After a presentation of their contributions, we present a link between memory and Social Thinking. Based on this review, we propose a set of empirical studies on the basis of the theoretical distinction between the influence of the present on the past and the influence of the past on the present (Jedlowski, 2001; Jodelet, 1992). In the first empirical part, we examined, in five studies, the influence of personal involvement that represents the interests of the present, on the reconstruction of the social memory, via the representation of a past event. The results show that the personal involvement vis-à-vis an event influences its social representation. Specifically, low personal involvement tends to make salient descriptive aspects of the representation of the past, whereas high personal involvement tends to make salient its evaluative aspects. In the second empirical part, we consider the influence of memory on Social Thinking (i.e. the present) related to the functions of collective memory. In an empirical study, we first looked at its mobilization function through the influence of the consistency (vs. inconsistency) between the memory of an event and a similar future event. Then, in three empirical studies, we look at the social identity definition function. Our results show that when an individual and a target share the same memories, perceived similarity increases and the target is more likely to be categorized as an ingroup. In addition, through the paradigm of the black sheep effect, our results suggest that sharing memory has a normative aspect. The general discussion focuses on the distinction that has structured our empirical part (i.e. the interplay between past and present) and proposes that these two movements have to be considered as a dynamic. Suggestions of studies incorporating this aspect are also proposed
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Jean Louis Tavani. Mémoire sociale et pensée sociale : Etudes empiriques de leurs influences croisées. Psychologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05H107⟩. ⟨tel-00771414⟩

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