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Comportement des déchets graphite en situation de stockage : Relâchement et répartition des espèces organiques et inogarniques du carbone 14 et du tritium en milieu alcalin

Abstract : 23000 tons of graphite wastes will be generated during dismantling of the first generation of French reactors (9 gas cooled reactors). These wastes are classified as Long Lived Low Level wastes (LLW-LL). As requested by the law, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra) is studying concepts of low-depth disposals.In this work we focus on carbon 14, the main long-lived radionuclide in graphite waste (5730y), but also on tritium, which is the main contributor to the radioactivity in the short term. Carbon 14 and tritium may be released from graphite waste in many forms in gaseous phase (14CO2, HT…) or in solution (14CO32-, HTO…). Their speciation will strongly affect their migration from the disposal site to the environment. Leaching experiments, in alkaline solution (0.1 M NaOH simulating repository conditions) have been performed on irradiated graphite, from Saint-Laurent A2 and G2 reactors, in order to quantify their release and characterize their speciation. The studies show that carbon 14 exists in both gaseous and aqueous phases. In the gaseous phase, release is weak (<0.1%) and corresponds to oxidizable species. Carbon 14 is mainly released into liquid phase, as both inorganic and organic species. 65% of released fraction is inorganic and 35% organic carbon. Two tritiated species have been identified in gaseous phase: HTO and HT/Organically Bond Tritium. More than 90% of tritium in that phase corresponds to HT/OBT. But release is weak (<0.1%). HTO is mainly in the liquid phase.
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  • HAL Id : tel-00770671, version 1

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Ludivine Vende. Comportement des déchets graphite en situation de stockage : Relâchement et répartition des espèces organiques et inogarniques du carbone 14 et du tritium en milieu alcalin. Matériaux. Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012EMNA0018⟩. ⟨tel-00770671⟩

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