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Theses

Architectures pour des systèmes de localisation et de cartographie simultanées

Abstract : Mobile robotics is a growing field. One important research area is Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM). Algorithms commonly used in SLAM are generally expensive in terms of computing power. The current trend towards miniaturization imposes to restrict the embedded processing units. All these observations lead us to integrate SLAM algorithms on dedicated architectures suitable for embedded systems.The first work was to define an architecture for a mobile robot to localize itself. This architecture must satisfy some constraints, including the real-time, small dimensions and low power consumption. The optimized implementation of a SLAM algorithm, using the best architectural characteristics of the system (capacity of processors, multi-core implementation, SIMD instructions or parallelization on heterogeneous architecture), has demonstrated the ability to design embedded systems for SLAM applications in the context of Hardware-Software codesign.A second approach has been explored with the aim of designing a system based on a reconfigurable architecture (FPGA-based) for a highly parallel architecture dedicated to SLAM. The defined architecture was evaluated using a HIL (Hardware in the Loop) methodology.The main SLAM algorithms use the probabilistic theories, they do not guarantee their localization results. A SLAM algorithm based on interval analysis is defined to guarantee the overall results. Several algorithmic improvements are then proposed. A comparison with probabilistic algorithms highlighted the robustness of the approach.This thesis put forward two main contributions. The first is to affirm the importance of the hardware software codesign to solve the problem of SLAM with real-time constraint. The second is the definition of a new algorithm to ensure the results of localization and mapping.
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Bastien Vincke. Architectures pour des systèmes de localisation et de cartographie simultanées. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112332⟩. ⟨tel-00770323⟩

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