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Etude du transfert réactif de l'hydrogène au sein de l'argilite intacte

Abstract : Hydrogen gas will be produced by anaerobic corrosion of radioactive waste containers in the geological repository. This gas could affect the geological layer (Callovo-Oxfordian) stability, first due to its reductive capacity and then also due to its continuous production for about 100,000 years. The local pressure increase could affect the properties of hydro-gaseous dynamic of hydrogen transfers. The reductive capacity of H2 could change the redox properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian and the barrier hydraulic properties, and therefore (1) its mineralogy, (2) the speciation of outgoing radionuclides and (3) their transfer. Moreover, if the hydrogen gas transport is difficult within the geological layer, the pressure increase could cause cracking and create preferential pathways for radionuclides migration. An experimental device was developed to measure the entry pressure of H2(g) and transport parameters as permeability and diffusion coefficient through the COx. The entry pressure is estimated to be between 49 and 63 bar. Knowing that the maximum expected pressure is about 80 bar, there may therefore be a displacement of hydrogen gas into the water saturated clayrock. Moreover, for a saturation greater than 0.90 and at T = 23°C, permeability is measured to be close to 10-23 m2 and the diffusion coefficient to be as low as 10-12 m2.s-1. Therefore hydrogen gas will move slowly in the geological layer, for example it will take about 31,710 years to go through one meter of clayrock by diffusion. These transport parameters are found to depend mainly on the sample water saturation and not much on temperature. Regarding hydrogen reactivity, under conditions close to those in the storage, H2 will reduce up to 9 wt% of structural Fe (III) at 90°C and PH2 = 5 bar. This reaction is not complete and hydrogen gas will mainly sorb on the material, with a sorption up to 0.05 wt% at 90°C and PH2 = 0.45 bar. This process depends strongly on the water saturation of the sample, because of a competition between H2 and H2O to sorb on the surface. As a whole, more than 18 m3 of H2 per m3 of COx will sorb in dried conditions. This process will allow, during gas transport, to reduce locally the hydrogen pressure.
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Mathilde Didier. Etude du transfert réactif de l'hydrogène au sein de l'argilite intacte. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENU018⟩. ⟨tel-00770176⟩

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