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Caractérisation de deux acteurs d'une voie de régulation rétrograde induite par un stress mitochondrial chez Podospora anserina

Abstract : The filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is a model system for the study of many biological processes, including aging. A causal relationship between the respiratory chain efficiency and longevity has been established for the first time in P. anserina. This causal relationship seems to be conserved between species. The link between the respiratory chain efficiency and longevity could be in part explained by the induction of retrograde regulation in response to mitochondrial dysfunction. Studies of mitochondrial and chloroplast retrograde regulation show that in response to a dysfunction of these organelles, there is a reprogramming of gene expression involved in the adaptive plasticity of organisms in response to the environment.A target gene of mitochondrial retrograde regulation was identified in P. anserina: the aox gene. The alternative oxidase belongs to the respiratory alternative pathway induced when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. Two transcription factors involved in mitochondrial retrograde regulation were identified by a genetic approach. These proteins, RSE2 and RSE3 belong to the family of Zn2Cys6 proteins and are major regulators of aox. Besides the aox gene, these two transcription factors are responsible for the coregulation of two gluconeogenic enzymes: FBP (fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase) and PCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). By a genetic approach, several gain-of-function mutations were isolated in RSE2 and RSE3 and our screen was likely to be saturated. Analysis of these mutations, together with other mutagenesis approaches allowed us to propose the existence of regulatory regions in RSE2 and RSE3 sequences.Microarray transcriptional profiling was conducted on rse2 and rse3 gain of function mutants. This identified new targets of RSE2 and RSE3 activated during mitochondrial dysfunction: FHB (a gene encoding a flavohemoglobin) and Pa_6_4030 (a gene encoding an α / β hydrolase). A metabolomic approach was also used and it gave new insight to the metabolic reprogramming in response to a malfunction of the respiratory chain and the role of RSE2/RSE3 in this reprogramming.Thus we showed that RSE2 and RSE3 play a role in mitochondrial retrograde regulation that is responsible for the activation of the respiratory alternative pathway, and also for the activation of metabolic reprogramming of P. anserina that would maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of mitochondrial dysfunction.
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Elodie Bovier. Caractérisation de deux acteurs d'une voie de régulation rétrograde induite par un stress mitochondrial chez Podospora anserina. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA112156⟩. ⟨tel-00769947⟩

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