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Supplémentation en colza ou en lin de rations à base d’herbe chez la vache laitière durant deux lactations consécutives : effets sur les performances zootechniques et la composition fine en acides gras du lait

Abstract : Addition of oilseed supplements to dairy cow diets for 1 to 3 months may improve the milk nutritional quality, but detrimental effects on animal performance may also occur. However, data is scarce on long-term effects of these nutritional strategies. The objective of this thesis was to quantify the effects of extruded linseed and three forms of rapeseed-derived supplements on dairy cow performance and detailed milk fatty acid composition, during 2 consecutive lactations. Basal diet was conserved grass during winter and pasture during summer. Oilseed supplements effects persist within each period (winter and summer) and are repeatable between the 2 summer periods. Long-term effects observed over 2 consecutive lactations are similar to those observed during short-term (1 to 3 months) studies. These oilseed-derived supplements not improve dairy cow performance, but decrease the milk protein content in some instances, especially during winter period. Nevertheless, oilseed supplementations reduce milk saturated fatty acid content and increase milk content in oleic acid and with linseed in α-linolenic acid. Such changes could be considered as an improvement of the milk nutritional quality. However, extruded linseed and fat-rich rapeseed meal increase milk trans fatty acid content, and oilseed supplements often decrease milk rumenic acid at pasture. Isomer distribution of cis and trans unsaturated fatty in milk fat is dependent on the oilseed nature and diet starch content, but not on the rapeseed form. However, rapeseed form modifies the magnitude of observed effects. Furthermore, the detailed analyses of milk fatty acid profile allowed to explore conjugated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids metabolism, and their relationship with mammary lipogenesis.
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Sylvain Lerch. Supplémentation en colza ou en lin de rations à base d’herbe chez la vache laitière durant deux lactations consécutives : effets sur les performances zootechniques et la composition fine en acides gras du lait. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF22238⟩. ⟨tel-00769944⟩

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