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Rôle de la protéine BLM dans le maintien de l’intégrité du centromère : implications dans le phénotype cellulaire associé au syndrome de Bloom

Abstract : Bloom syndrome (BS) is a rare genetic disease characterized by a sharp increase in the rate of sister chromatid exchanges, chromosome segregation abnormailities and a predisposition to the development of all types of cancers. This syndrome is caused by mutations in both copies of the BLM gene, which encodes BLM, a RecQ 3'-5 DNA helicase. The specific function(s) of BLM remain unclear, but the data from the literature converge towards a role for BLM in mechanisms monitoring and / or maintaining genome integrity. The BLM protein may be involved in restarting stalled replication forks during S phase and necessary to resolve anaphase bridges in mitosis, including particular bridges called "Ultrafine Anaphase Bridges" (UFBs). These UFBs, which link sister chromatids together, are not detectable by conventional stains and their presence can only be revealed by the detection of the proteins PICH (PLK1-interacting checkpoint helicase) or BLM. In untreated cells, UFBs originate mostly from centromeres (cUFBs).The challenge of my project was to determine whether BLM was also involved in preventing the formation of cUFBs and so, if it played a role before anaphase.We showed that BLM is recruited at centromeres from G2 phase to mitosis. BLM, in cooperation with PICH, is required for (1) structural organization of centromeric DNA, (2) completion of centromere disjunction, independently of the cohesin pathway, suggesting an involvement of these proteins in centromere decatenation process, and (3) recruitment of active topoisomerase IIα (Topo IIα) to centromeres. Thus, we report a new localization and a new function of BLM at centromeres, revealing for the first time a new role for BLM and PICH in a previously unknown centromeric decatenation mechanism, crucial for complete centromere disjunction.We propose that the combined action of BLM and PICH promotes, through their helicase and chromatin remodelling activities, respectively, the organization of centromeric chromatin, thereby rendering some centromeric catenates accessible to Topo IIa before the onset of anaphase. The failure of this mechanism may lead to the persistence of some centromeric catenations not resolved before anaphase. Thus, the increase in the frequency of centromeric UFBs in BLMdeficient cells has two different origins: cUFBs arising from catenations not resolved before anaphase and physiological cUFBs not processed at anaphase onset. Two distinguish the two cUFB origins, we defined the former as supernumerary centromeric UFBs (SC-UFBs).
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Sébastien Rouzeau. Rôle de la protéine BLM dans le maintien de l’intégrité du centromère : implications dans le phénotype cellulaire associé au syndrome de Bloom. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA11T110⟩. ⟨tel-00769941⟩

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