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Odgovor genoma na abioticki stres : primjer serpentinofita u centralnoj Bosni

Abstract : Habitats on serpentine substrate present a hostile environment for the plants development. They are characterized by a small number of species, but high levels of endemism. This study shows for the first time a series of data on genome size, chromosome number, ploidy level, the affinity to the substrate, the life cycle, the type and form of growth in the extreme northwest region of serpentine area in the Balkans. The sample includes 308 taxa belonging to 213 genera, with new values recorded for 28 genera and 99 species. Using Leitch’s criteria, more than half of estimated taxa (55.63%) belong to the group of very small genomes, 22.19% small, 18.75% intermediary, 3.13% large and only 0.31% to very large genomes. Regarding the affinity to the substrate, the majority of species (171) were indifferent or facultative serpentinophytes (103). Concerning the life cycle, ~ 4% of species are annuals and 88.31% perennials, and 57% had very small genomes. Hemicryptophytes represent a dominant life form (48.38%), phanerophytes 17%, 1chamaephytes5%, therophytes 9% and geophytes 9%. It is clear that the water stress, high temperatures and presence of heavy metals in serpentine habitats have the high selective pressure and favor perennial species with very small genome.The Narcissus poeticus (Amaryllidaceae), facultative serpentinophyte, is the ancestor of cultivated daffodils. This is the first study of N. poeticus and its rhizosphere in natural populations. It shows tolerance to soil pH ranging from 4.64 to 7.85. Serpentine soils have total concentrations of nickel, cobalt and magnesium highest, compared with calcareous soils. Narcissus poeticus is characterized by the greater accumulation of manganese, nickel and magnesium in the aerial parts of plant. Against the cobalt has a uniform total concentration in all parts of the plant. Another unusual feature of N. poeticus is the highest molar ratio Ca / Mg in the underground parts, probably du to his life form (geophytes) and summer dormancy. It is obvious that although N. poeticus accumulate certain amounts of estimated heavy metals (Mn, Ni, Co, Fe), it does not a hyperaccumulator.An important part of this work concerns the variability of the chromosome structure, genome size, the ploidy level and the presence of B chromosomes in 13 natural populations growing on different soils and under different environmental conditions. The technique of flow cytometry was used to estimate the genome size, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the physical mapping of rDNA, the fluorochrome banding for the organization of heterochromatin and silver staining to estimate the activity of ribosomal genes. Organization of ribosomal genes and natural triploids have been reported here for the first time. Presence of individuals carrying B chromosomes (in 9 / 13 populations) and chromosomal translocations were detected. A particular system of B chromosomes presents three different morphotypes. The most common submetacentric type shows four different patterns in the organization of heterochromatin and rDNA. The AgNO3 staining showed that the number of nucleoli formed increases in the presence of B chromosomes carrying ribosomal genes, which proved their activity. The obtained results show that N. poeticus has a dynamic genome with the variable amount of DNA due to the presence of polyploidy, B chromosomes and chromosomal rearrangements. It seems that the observed changes reflect the response of the genome to different environmental conditions in which individuals carrying B chromosomes may have some selective advantages
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Fatima Pustahija. Odgovor genoma na abioticki stres : primjer serpentinofita u centralnoj Bosni. Agricultural sciences. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI; Univerzitet u Sarajevu, 2011. Bosnian. ⟨NNT : 2011PA112187⟩. ⟨tel-00769399⟩

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