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Implication du pore de transition de perméabilité mitochondriale dans l'apoptose de la cellule β pancréatique

Abstract : PTP involvement in β pancreatic cell death Hyperglycemia, hyperfructosemia and ischemia-reperfusion play a major role in the progression of β cell loss in diabetes mellitus. The permeability transition pore (PTP) is a mitochondrial channel involved in cell death. PTP opening and oxidative stress have been shown to be involved in ischemia-reperfusion injury on cardiomyocytes and in hyperglycemia-induced cell death in endothelial cells. In the first part of this work, we have examined the involvement of PTP opening in INS-1 cells and human pancreatic islets cell death induced by high levels of glucose or fructose. We first reported that Metformin and Cyclosporin A (CsA) prevented Ca2+-induced PTP opening in permeabilized and intact INS-1 cells. We then shown that incubation of INS-1 cells and human islets in the presence of 30 mM glucose or 2.5 mM fructose induced PTP opening and led to cell death. Because both Metformin and CsA prevented glucose and fructose induced PTP opening, and hampered glucose and fructose induced cell death, we conclude that PTP opening is involved in high glucose and high fructose induced INS-1 and human islets cell death. We therefore suggest that preventing PTP opening might be a new approach to preserve β cell viability. In the second part of the work, we demonstrate that the incubation of INS-1 cells in the absence of energy substrates in hypoxic condition for 1 hour followed by incubation in normal condition led to PTP opening and to a dramatic increase in cell death. Both events were totally prevented when PTP opening was inhibited by either Cyclosporin A (CsA) or Metformin or when the cells were incubated in the presence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cystein (NAC), in anoxia, highlighting the implication of oxidative stress is the commitment of PTP opening. Superoxide production increased during the removal of energy substrates, due to reverse electron flux through complex I and again increased when normal energy substrate and O2 were restored, due to PTP opening. NAC, anoxia or Metformin prevented the two phases of oxidative stress, while CsA prevented only the second one. Hypoxia alone did not induce oxidative stress, PTP opening or cell death. Our work demonstrates the implication of PTP opening in ischemia-reperfusion injury and gluco- fructotoxicty in β pancreatic cells. We therefore suggest that preventing PTP opening might be a new approach to preserve β cell viability.
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Sandrine Cornali Lablanche. Implication du pore de transition de perméabilité mitochondriale dans l'apoptose de la cellule β pancréatique. Sciences agricoles. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENV009⟩. ⟨tel-00767105⟩

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