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Apport de l'étude des sources sismo-volcaniques à la connaissance des processus éruptifs du volcan Yasur Vanuatu

Abstract : Yasur is a small stratovolcano located inside a large caldeira, in the south-eastern part of Tanna Island (South Vanuatu). The summit crater is occupied by three vents: the vents A and B in the southern subcrater and the vent C in the northern subcrater. Yasur's activity is characterized by explosions of gas bubbles and the emission of small ash plumes. In order to better understand the volcanic processes that occured inside the edifice, a large seismic network, consisting of 12 antennas and 10 broadband stations, was deployed around Yasur volcano in 2008, recording continuously the seismic signal. The superficial velocity structure of Yasur volcano and of the Siwi caldeira was estimated up to 200 meters using the Spatial Autocorrelation and the frequency-wavenumber techniques - two ambient noise methods included in the software Geopsy - on seismic signals recorded by seven antennas. Four main areas were distinguished and interpreted in terms of geological layers and fluid distribution (aquifer, hydrothermal system) inside the volcanic structure. The velocity structure was inserted in a ray tracing algorithm and combined to a seismic triangulation method to locate sources of explosion quakes and LP events. Locations allow to follow the evolution of the 2008 Yasur's activity in the different vents and to propose two eruptive dynamics models to explain the periodicity of the strombolian explosions and the intense activity observed at Yasur volcano. Locations also allow the estimation of the slug rise velocity and an estimate of the volcanic pipe geometry.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 19, 2012 - 12:22:35 PM
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Laurence Perrier. Apport de l'étude des sources sismo-volcaniques à la connaissance des processus éruptifs du volcan Yasur Vanuatu. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Grenoble, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011GRENU054⟩. ⟨tel-00766993⟩

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