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Micro/Nano ingénierie pour le contrôle de la croissance de cellules neuronales et l'élaboration d'une bioprothèse cérébrale à base de cellules souches organisées

Amélie Béduer 1
1 LAAS-NBS - Équipe NanoBioSystèmes
LAAS - Laboratoire d'analyse et d'architecture des systèmes
Abstract : Brain pathologies are often characterized by cell population losses. One promising therapeutic approach consists in using bioactive biomaterials, combining a cellular graft and biopolymers, acting as scaffold to build new tissues in vitro, which will then be implanted in vivo. In this thesis, we develop a brain bioprosthesis that combines the regenerative role of adult human neural stem cells with the control of cells behavior by microtopography and carbon nanotubes. The first part is dedicated to in vitro experiments that focus on the interactions between various neuronal cell types and topographical cues. We show that topographical patterns generated on a non-cytotoxic polymer (PDMS) strongly influence the development of neuronal networks. We also demonstrate that carbon nanotube thin layers constitute a favorable substrate to culture various types of neuronal cells. We then propose an explanation to further understand the role of carbon nanotubes on neuronal cell growth. The second part is dedicated to the elaboration of a brain bioprosthesis for the rat. The objective of this bioprosthesis is to reconstruct a lost brain tissue located in the primary motor zone of the cortex, which is responsible for the motricity. Brain bioprosthesis development considers all requirements related to stem cell culture and neurosurgery. It is made of microstructured PDMS and incorporates adult stem cells predifferentiated in vitro into neurons and astrocytes. Our first results obtained in vivo show a partial functional recovery of rats after the implantation of the bioprosthesis in the region of an induced brain lesion.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 19, 2012 - 2:04:46 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00766823, version 1

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Amélie Béduer. Micro/Nano ingénierie pour le contrôle de la croissance de cellules neuronales et l'élaboration d'une bioprothèse cérébrale à base de cellules souches organisées. Micro et nanotechnologies/Microélectronique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00766823⟩

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