Modifications des propriétés structurelles et fonctionnelles des gros troncs artériels dans l’insuffisance rénale : valeur pronostique et évolution après transplantation

Abstract : Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with frequent cardiovascular complications. Arterialstiffness is a marker of cardiovascular (CV) disease and is associated with mortality in patients with end-stagerenal disease (ESRD). Our group has previously suggested that a maladaptative arterial remodeling occurs earlyduring CKD, even in patients with mild kidney dysfunction. Our first prospective study was based on a large CKD cohort. Our data confirm that the large arteries modifications, which include increase of carotid stiffness, decrease of intima-media thickness, carotid arterydilatation with enhancement of circumferential wall stress (CWS), worsen during CKD progression. We also showthat initial CWS is associated with the rate of kidney function deterioration, even after adjustment for other CV andCKD risk factors. In addition, we found that aortic stiffness was associated with both the overall survival and therisk of cardiovascular events. The internal carotid diameter is predictive of the overall mortality, after multivariateanalysis. Kidney transplantation reduces the CV risk of ESRD patients. Our 2 prospective studies demonstratethat aortic stiffness can improve during the first year after transplantation. The maladaptative arterial remodelingcan also reverse after transplantation, with a significant reduction of the carotide diameter, an increase of theintima-media thickness and a partial correction of the CWS. The improvement of the aortic stiffness and thereversal of this maladaptative arterial remodeling is particularily important in patients receiving a kidney allograftform a young allograft donor, independently of the post-transplant renal function. The kidney recipients with aliving donor experience a major improvement of their arterial parameters when compared with recipients withdeceased donors, and this difference remains significant after adjustment for other confounding factors. Inconclusion, the quality of the kidney allograft (age and source) may play an important role in the cardiovascularoutcome of the recipient. This advantage could be mediated a beneficial effect of transplantation on centralarteries structure and function.
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Georges-Alexandre Karras. Modifications des propriétés structurelles et fonctionnelles des gros troncs artériels dans l’insuffisance rénale : valeur pronostique et évolution après transplantation. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P621⟩. ⟨tel-00766807⟩

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