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Propagation de photons sous champs magnétiques intenses - Etude expérimentale de la biréfringence magnétique du vide quantique

Abstract : In this work, we present a metrology experiment whose goal is to measure the vacuum magnetic birefringence. It consists in measuring the ellipticity induced by a pulsed transverse magnetic field on a laser beam initially linearly polarized. This ellipticity is proportional to the square of the magnetic field, to the length of the optical path in the medium, and to its magnetic birefringence. In particular, quantum electrodynamics theory predicts a value for the birefringence of the vacuum that is extremely small; its measurement is thus an experimental challenge. This thesis presents the detailed characterization of the high precision ellipsometer. It combines a very high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, on which is locked a Nd:YAG laser, with pulsed magnets delivering strong transverse magnetic field. We then show the results of our measurements of nitrogen Cotton-Mouton effect. These measurements allow us to precisely calibrate our experimental setup. A detailed error budget is given, and the the entirety of the systematic effects is identified. In the end we give the results of the first magnetic field pulses that have been carried out in vacuum, as well as the sensitivity of the experimental setup, and the improvements that have to be brought on it. We finally present a further work to this experiment, making an excursion beyond the Standard Model. We study the possibility of oscillations of photons into massive particles called axions. We particularly give the results of the "light shinning through the wall experiment" using X-rays and carried out at the ESRF of Grenoble.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 17, 2012 - 6:32:43 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:37:50 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00766215, version 1

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Paul Berceau. Propagation de photons sous champs magnétiques intenses - Etude expérimentale de la biréfringence magnétique du vide quantique. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00766215⟩

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