Complexation des actinides (III, IV et V) par des acides organiques

Abstract : A thorough knowledge of the chemical properties of actinides is now required in a wide variety of fields: extraction processes involved in spent fuel reprocessing, groundwater in the vicinity of radioactive waste packages, environmental and biological media in the case of accidental release of radionuclides. In this context, the present work has been focused on the complexation of Am(III), Cm(III), Cf(III), Pu(IV) and Pa(V) with organic ligands: DTPA, NTA and citric acid. The complexation of pentavalent protactinium with citric and nitrilotriacetic acids was studied using liquid-liquid extraction with the element at tracer scale (CPa < 10-10M). The order and the mean charge of each complex were determined from the analysis of the systematic variations of the distribution coefficient of Pa(V) as function of ligand and proton concentration. Then, the apparent formation constants related of the so-identified complexes were calculated. The complexation of trivalent actinides with DTPA was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and capillary electrophoresis (CE-ICP-MS). The coexistence of the mono-protonated and non-protonated complexes (AnHDTPA- and AnDTPA²-) in acidic media (1.5 ≤ pH ≤ 3.5) was shown unambiguously. Literature data have been reinterpreted by taking into account both complexes and a consistent set of formation constants of An(III)-DTPA has been obtained. The experimental study was completed by theoretical calculations (DFT) on Cm-DTPA system. The coordination geometry of Cm in CmDTPA²- and CmHDTPA- including water molecules in the first coordination sphere has been determined as well as interatomic distances. Finally, a study on the complexation of Pu(IV) with DTPA was initiated in order to more closely mimic physiological conditions. A three-step approach was proposed to avoid plutonium hydrolysis: i/ complexation of Pu(IV) with (NTA) in order to protect Pu(IV) from hydrolysis (at low pH) ii/ increase of pH toward neutral conditions and iii/ competition between the complexation of Pu with NTA and with DTPA. The preliminary experiments performed with CE-ICP-MS in the pH range 1.5 - 3.5 tend to indicate kinetic effect or/and the presence of mixed complex.
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Autre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. <NNT : 2012PA112262>
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Submitted on : Friday, December 7, 2012 - 5:22:15 PM
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Sébastien Leguay. Complexation des actinides (III, IV et V) par des acides organiques. Autre. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2012. Français. <NNT : 2012PA112262>. <tel-00762743>




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