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Libération extra-cellulaire de microARN et de complexes nucléo-protéiques par les cellules infectées par EBV : rôle des exosomes et d’autres transporteurs

Claire Gourzones 1
1 IMC (UMR 8126) - Interactions moléculaires et cancer
UMR8126 - Signalisation, noyaux et innovations en cancérologie
Abstract : The study of tumoral microenvironment should take into account different modes of intercellular communications: direct contacts between extracellular membranes, secretion and uptake of cytokines and finally emission and uptake of complex biological objects like exosomes and microvesicles.Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several human malignancies of epithelial origin (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma or NPC) or of lymphoïd origin (post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder or PTLD). In these tumors, malignant cells are latently infected by EBV and release exosomes and microvesicles containing viral nucleic acids and proteins. Studying them will enable a better understanding of tumor-host interactions and the discovery of new markers which could be useful for early diagnostic and the follow-up of the disease under treatment.The first aim of this thesis was to study the release by malignant cells of EBV microRNAs belonging to the BART family and their blood diffusion in patients bearing NPC tumors. For the first time, I’ve shown that exosomes released by NPC cells in vitro contain EBV miR-BART microRNAs. Moreover, ebv-miR-BART7 can be detected in the plasma of NPC patients. Unlike what is observed in vitro, circulating BART microRNAs are not carried by exosomes. Recent data from studies in xenografted mice show that they are carried by extra-cellular complexes which can be immunoprecipitated by anti-Ago2 antibodies. We are currently trying to confirm these data in plasma from NPC patients. This work will ease the use of miR-BARTs as potential biomarkers.The second aim was to study the proteome modifications induced by the EBV Latent Membrane Protein 1 protein (LMP1). I’ve shown that LMP1 expression in lymphoid or epithelial cells infected or not by EBV induces the release of PARP1 in the extra-cellular space. This extra-cellular PARP1 is not carried by exosomes or microvesicles but is embedded in non-vesicular nano-objects containing histones and DNA. We have called these objects “DNA-proteins complexes”. We don’t know how they are produced and released by cells. We think that they are not only secreted by apoptotic cells. Recent data show that this release of extra-cellular PARP1 is associated with PARP1 activation by LMP1 oncoprotein expression. We are trying to prove this hypothesis using cell lines expressing wild type or mutated LMP1. The release and the activation of PARP1 induced by LMP1 expression will help to understand the mechanisms of EBV-associated oncogenesis and auto-immunity.
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Claire Gourzones. Libération extra-cellulaire de microARN et de complexes nucléo-protéiques par les cellules infectées par EBV : rôle des exosomes et d’autres transporteurs. Cancer. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA11T072⟩. ⟨tel-00759635⟩

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