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Theses

La région du Jari, un laboratoire en Amazonie

Abstract : This thesis studies the components and phases of the socioeconomic and territorial evolution of the Jari river region, located at the north of the Brazilian Amazon, by identifying its different transformation processes and contemporary spatial structures. Longtime left aloof from national population and development dynamics, the region experiences a two-step economic and social evolution in the XX century: A first occupation, at the beginning of the century, that was conditioned by the exploitation of natural resources (rubber, Brazil nut) and led to the establishment of a " latifundium " covering about 2 million ha; and a second, more important occupation at the end of 1960ies by the an American businessman and multimillionaire D.K. Ludwig. The initiation, by the latter, of a huge agro-industrial enterprise, the " Jari project ", aiming at a large-scale production of cellulose, lead to the construction of first urban infrastructures and industrial facilities in a region until then covered with intact primary forest. The socio-cultural, economical and political development of the Jari River region has since been intrinsically linked to the evolution of the Jari project. The project itself, which is still active in the region, has itself known significant change since its building up in 1967: strongly criticized during the 1970ies and 1980ies due to the lack of economic viability of its agro-industrial activities, as well as its ecological impact and its waste of human resources, the project of the XXI century, revived by a new management (Orsa), presents itself as an innovative, lucrative and certified firm, henceforth conscious of its social and environmental responsibility and thus of its pioneer role for the socioeconomic development of the Jari River region where it operates. The territorial strategies developed in this context by the company, which are embedded in a discourse of social and environmental corporate responsibility, have indeed permitted the company not only to establish itself on the national and international pulp market, but also to mitigate the long-standing land conflict between the Jari firm, the government and the local populations, who had been partly displaced from their lands by the transformation of huge parts of the rainforest into eucalyptus plantations. The creation of a firm-interne social Foundation in 2000, commissioned to carry into action small socioeconomic projects in the region, has also allowed to accelerate a process of territorial integration, aiming at including the local communities and political actors into the management of the region and its use of its natural resources, until then monopolized by the company. Not yet fully achieved, this process of territorial integration constitutes today a solid basis for a sustainable transformation of the region in the future, from the old "enclave" of the American into an integrated region whose potential is commonly shared by its habitants.
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Submitted on : Saturday, November 24, 2012 - 5:52:35 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00756962, version 1

Citation

Anna Greissing. La région du Jari, un laboratoire en Amazonie. Géographie. IHEAL-CREDA Université Paris III Nouvelle Sorbonne, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00756962⟩

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