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Infiltration-percolation sur sable et sur fibre de coco, filtres plantes et épuration d'eaux usées domestiques à dominance agroalimentaire sous climat tropical sec : cas des eaux résiduaires urbaines de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Abstract : In Burkina Faso, wastewater and excreta management in the urban and rural areas remains a big concern. In order to find an alternative to on-site sanitation by the exclusive use of excreta collecting system without treatment, extensive biological processes of wastewater treatment have been experimented. At first, the comparative performances of two materials (sand and coconut fibers) were evaluated in wastewater treatment. An anaerobic pond served as the primary treatment. Then in a second step, Andropogon gayanus Kunth and Chrysopogon nigritana (Benth) Veldkamp, two tropical Poaceae, were used to treat municipal wastewater by constructed wetlands. As results, average yields of eliminating biodegradable pollution were respectively 99% and 98% for the sand filter and the coconut fibers. However, there is an added COD due to the extraction of phenolic compounds contained in the coconut fibers. This masks the real performance of this material on the COD removal. Moreover, without good nitrification in coconut substrate, a removal of nitrogen in ammonium form with a yield of 75% was founded. Thanks to its very porous structure, coconut fibers showed a greater ability to remove minerals compared to sand. The two constructed wetlands have shown good removal efficiencies of organic pollution with values above 97% of BOD5. This was enhanced by the alternating phases of feeding and resting. For nutrients, the filter planted with Andropogon gayanus provided an important removal of N and P. Chrysopogon nigritana showed the drought resistance to evapotranspiration.
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Martine Diallo. Infiltration-percolation sur sable et sur fibre de coco, filtres plantes et épuration d'eaux usées domestiques à dominance agroalimentaire sous climat tropical sec : cas des eaux résiduaires urbaines de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Autre. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I; Université de Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso), 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10323⟩. ⟨tel-00754938⟩

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