Abstract : This thesis presents the development of CMOS sensors for a future neutron sensitive electronic individual dosemeter. Active dosemeters, exist but do not yet give results as satisfactory as passive devices, being however, mandatory for workers in addition to the passive dosimetry since 1995 (IEC 1323). The RaMsEs group in the laboratory IPHC is exploring a new compact device based on CMOS sensors for operational neutron dosimetry. In this thesis, a dedicated sensor, AlphaRad-2, with low noise and very low power consumption (314 μW), has been implemented in a commercial CMOS technology. The AlphaRad-2 integrates the sensing part made of a micro-diode array of 32×32 n-well/p-epi diodes on a sensitive area of 6.55 mm2 and the signal processing electronics on the same silicon substrate. Device physics simulations have been performed to study the charge collection mechanism in diode matrices, and to optimize the collection efficiency and its time properties. The sensor geometry is a compromise between the collection performance and the total capacitance of the detector. A charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a shaper, and a discriminator are employed in the readout circuit. We present its theoretical analysis, circuit design, and electrical tests. Our device has a sensitivity at the level of one single secondary charge particle (proton or α) thanks to its excellent noise performance. Extensive measurements to radioactive sources of α-particles, photons, and fast neutrons, have demonstrated good detection efficiency to fast neutrons and excellent γ-rejection through applying an appropriate electronic threshold.