Expression et évolution du phénotype étendu dans une association parasitoïde-virus

Julien Martinez 1
1 BAMBOO - An algorithmic view on genomes, cells, and environments
Inria Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes, LBBE - Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Evolutive - UMR 5558
Abstract : The expression of the phenotype of an individual depends partly on the presence of symbiotic organisms with which it engages in intimate interactions. According to the symbiont’s mode of transmission, the conflict of interest between the host and its symbiont for the expression of the phenotype can be more or less stronger, sometimes leading to the evolution of manipulation of the host phenotype by the symbiont. We attempted to identify different genetic and environmental factors influencing the expression and the evolution of manipulation in the Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina boulardi, and its behavior manipulating virus, LbFV. The virus undergoes both vertical and horizontal transmission, the latter being favoured by the induction of superparasitism behaviour by the virus. The study of the contribution of the parasitoid genotype to the expression of the manipulation revealed a polymorphism in the resistance to the manipulation. The evolutionary potential of this resistance was then investigated using a protocol of experimental evolution. We also demonstrated that LbFV increases the virulence of the parasitoid towards its Drosophila host, revealing a form of mutualistic interaction on this trait. Additionally, we showed that an individual parasitoid can be coinfected by several LbFV strains but also by an RNA virus, described for the first time in this thesis. The vertical transmission, the high prevalence and the strong phenotypic effects of this new virus further highlights the importance of viruses in the expression of the phenotype in natural populations.
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Julien Martinez. Expression et évolution du phénotype étendu dans une association parasitoïde-virus. Sciences agricoles. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10329⟩. ⟨tel-00751985⟩

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