Abstract : Meiotic recombination plays several critical roles in molecular evolution. First, recombina- tion represents a key step in the production and transmission of gametes during meiosis. Second, recombination facilitates the impact of natural selection by shuffling genomic sequences. Furthermore, the action of certain repair mechanisms during recombination affects the frequencies of alleles in populations via biased gene conversion. Lately, the numerous advancements in the study of recombination have unraveled the complexity of this process regarding both its mechanisms and evolution. The main aim of this thesis is to analyze the relationships between the different causes, characteristics, and effects of recombination from an evolutionary perspective. First, we developed a model based on the control mechanisms of meiosis and inter-crossover interference. We further used this model to compare the recombination strategies in multiple vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as between sexes. Second, we studied the impact of the sex-specific localization of recombination hotspots on the evolution of the GC content for several vertebrates. Last, we built a population genetics model to analyze the impact of recombination on the frequency of deleterious mutation in the human population.