L'apport de l'outil géophysique pour la reconnaissance et la caractérisation des sites en archéologie préventive, méthodes et perspectives : exemples en Alsace

François-Xavier Simon 1
1 Géophysique appliquée
SISYPHE - Structure et fonctionnement des systèmes hydriques continentaux
Abstract : This study was prompted to be one observation: despite a capacity to recognize archaeological sites, geophysical prospection was not used as a conventional process in French preventive archaeology. Consequently our work aims to delineate a possible contribution in the different stages of studies: from recognition to characterization of sites. The framework of Alsace region is adequate as it shows a great variety of soils, a great variety of environmental contexts, and also a strong population pressure. In this area, we have considered 12 archaeological sites, the dates of which cover from the Neolithic to Middle Age periods. Their study comprises trial trenching, excavations and surveys outside the limits of the development project. This last case geophysical prospection is undisputed: it assesses site extension with non-intrusive methods and gives spatial information from site to territory scale. In conjunction with the excavations, over stripped surface level, geophysics is complementary to conventional observations as it recognizes "ghost" features both in stratigraphy and planimetry. Such a characterization suggests a reflection on the nature of topic and how excavations must be proceeded. Compared to trial trenching, geophysics delivers spatial information needed to site identification. It brings out limits of this practice by giving the context of single features, a global view of the site and detects structure between trenches. Finally, geophysics is well adapted to the archaeological mapping. As other prospection methods, weighted with their efficiency, it's also well useful for archaeological heritage management and in-situ preservation.
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François-Xavier Simon. L'apport de l'outil géophysique pour la reconnaissance et la caractérisation des sites en archéologie préventive, méthodes et perspectives : exemples en Alsace. Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00749112⟩

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