L'activation des α-sécrétases : une nouvelle stratégie thérapeutique pour le traitement du traumatisme crânien

Abstract : The severity of the sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) depends on the extent of primary damage as well as the implication of secondary injury cascades that are triggered within the hours and days post- insult. Neuroinflammation is an important post-TBI cascade whose inhibition has been described as a potential neuroprotective strategy. Neuroinflammation has been associated to the decrease of an endogenous neuroprotector, the soluble form α of the amyloid precursor protein (sAPPα), generated by the activity of the enzymes α-secretases or ADAMs. The aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic interest of pharmacological compounds that restore sAPPα levels on short- and long-term biochemical, histological and functional outcome in a mouse model of TBI by mechanical percussion. Among the potential candidates, the compounds selected were minocycline, a tetracycline that exerts anti-inflammatory activity, and etazolate, a pyrazolopyridine that activates α-secretases. The anti-inflammatory treatment with minocycline was able to restore post-TBI sAPPα levels, and this acute effect was accompanied by lasting neuroprotection, namely reduction of lesion size (corpus callosum, striatum and olfactory bulbs) and ventriculomegaly and attenuation of glial reactivity. The olfactory aversion test, developped for the first time in experimental TBI, unraveled a persistant olfactory deficit. Moreover, a durable cognitive deficit was revealed by the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT). Treatment with minocycline was able to attenuate both the olfactory and cognitive deficits in an effective manner. Moreover, the results obtained in the pharmacological study with etazolate (therapeutic window, dose-response) demonstrated, for the very first time, the anti-inflammatory and anti-oedematous efficacy of etazolate, when administered at least 2 hours post-TBI. The same treatment protocol was also able to attenuate sAPPα levels and offered persistent neuroprotection, namely reduction of lesion size (ventriculomegaly, olfactory bulb lesion) and microglial activation, and attenuation of functional deficits (hyperactivity, cognitive deficit). In conclusion, the findings of this work highlight the therapeutic efficacy of compounds that attenuate neuroinflammation and restore sAPPa levels within the acute and critical post-TBI aftermath, on histological and functional outcome. It is worth noting that minocycline is actually in a clinical trial for the treatment of traumatic brain injury and etazolate (EHT 0202), despite the poor experimental data available, has managed to enter a clinical trial for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
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Eleni Siopi. L'activation des α-sécrétases : une nouvelle stratégie thérapeutique pour le traitement du traumatisme crânien. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P616⟩. ⟨tel-00748807⟩

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