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Cavitation dans un micro-canal modèle d'injecteur diesel : méthodes de visualisation et influence de l'état de surface

Abstract : This PhD study is based on the design and use of an experimental set-up dedicated to the study of a cavitating flow in a micro-channel in conditions close to Diesel injection. The experimental set-up has been designed so that different parameters may vary, in particular channel wall roughness. Several optical systems (backlit imaging, Schlieren imaging and interferometry) have been developed in order to visualize the flow and get quantitative data.Backlit images make it possible to visualize vapor formation in the channel. They are sensitive to density gradients and therefore show shear layers, turbulent structures as well as pressure waves. Since they are rich in information, it is tricky to interpret them and the use of other optical methods is required.This study shows that cavitation appears in the shear layer due to the combined effect of the depression induced by flow detachment at the channel inlet and vortexes caused by instabilities in the shear layer. The comparison of the results obtained from the different optical systems - in particular the pressure fields rebuilt from interferograms - indicates that cavitation does not appear where flow pressure is the lowest in average.It is noticed that some vapor bubbles have a life expectancy much higher than predicted by bubble dynamics models. It is thought that pressure variations of about 20 bar, associated to turbulence, may play a role in this phenomenon.A PIV algorithm applied to couples of backlit images shows that velocity fluctuations largely increase at the channel outlet when vapor cavities develop. The increase gets more significant when cavities are 60 % the channel length.The cavitating flow is mainly dependent on the cavitation number K. The conditions of cavitation inception and development have been quantified in different channels, and geometrical parameters, upstream pressure or temperature have varied. The influence of channel height and radius inlet on cavitation is in line with the literature. At cavitation inception, it is shown that the critical cavitation number Kcrit is dependent on Reynolds number Re. Finally, the influence of wall roughness has been the subject of a specific study. Although it would need to be further investigated, roughness seems to have an influence on cavitation. The samples used during this PhD work suggest that roughness or patterns sufficiently spaced out may delay cavitation inception, and limited roughness (up to Ra = 0.7 μm here) may enhance vapor cavity development.
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Cyril Mauger. Cavitation dans un micro-canal modèle d'injecteur diesel : méthodes de visualisation et influence de l'état de surface. Autre. Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ECDL0010⟩. ⟨tel-00747628⟩

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