Développement et caractérisation in vivo de nanoparticules lipidiques biocompatibles au moyen des techniques d’imagerie de fluorescence et nucléaire

Abstract : Nanomedicine is a fast growing field since the development of liposomes, nanovectors able to encapsulate in their core or phospholipid bilayer hydrophilic or amphiphilic molecules for drug delivery purposes. Nowadays, most of the new synthetized therapeutic compounds are hydrophobic, necessitating the development of new types of nanocargos. Lipidots, 50 nm diameter biocompatible solid lipid nanoparticles, composed of a mixture of oil, wax and lecithin stabilized by a shell of pegylated surfactants, are used to encapsulate highly hydrophobic compounds in their core for vectorization purpose. Nuclear agents for simple photon emission tomography, or near infrared fluorescent dyes, have been encapsulated in the lipidot core, to assess the biodistribution of these nanoparticles in healthy mice as well as in a large range of tumor models. A targeting peptide, the cRGD motif, was also grafted on the surface of lipidots to vectorize preferentially the nanoparticles to tumors overexpressing αvβ3 integrins. An unexpected lipidot biodistribution in steroid organs (adrenal, ovary) was observed, with a specific localization in areas of steroid hormones synthesis (corpus luteum in ovaries, cortex for adrenals). This unique lipidot affinity was used to target hormono-dependent cancer cells, as well as to encapsulate ovarian hormones, like estradiol or ethynil estradiol, for hormone substitution therapy or birth control.
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Juliette Mérian. Développement et caractérisation in vivo de nanoparticules lipidiques biocompatibles au moyen des techniques d’imagerie de fluorescence et nucléaire. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P614⟩. ⟨tel-00747071⟩

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