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Efficacité et mode d'action des bactéries propioniques et / ou lactiques pour prévenir l'acidose latente chez le ruminant

Abstract : Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a major concern for the nutrition of high-producing ruminants. This digestive disorder is characterized by the instability of the microbial ecosystem and fermentations which are oriented towards propionate and/or butyrate at the expense of acetate (propionic or butyric SARA). Among the strategies used to prevent SARA, supplementation with direct-fed microbials (DFMs) is thought to be able to balance the ruminal microbiota and fermentation. The analysis of the literature shows that the effect of DFMs, especially bacterial ones, is variable and sometimes contradictory which is probably related to the instability of the microbiota. To investigate the possibility of preventing SARA by propionibacteria and/or lactobacilli based DFMs, we hypothesized that their effectiveness depends on the ruminal fermentation patterns. Butyric and propionic SARA, characterized by distinct microbial and fermentation profiles, have been developed in non-productive sheep and lactating dairy cows to investigate the effects and mode of action of the Propionibacterium P63 alone or in conjunction with the lactobacilli strains Lb. plantarum or Lb. rhamnosus (P63, P63 and Lp + Lr + P63) on the ruminal ecosystem and animal performances. During the propionic SARA induced in sheep, the DFMs used increased the ruminal pH with a concomitant reduction in the lactobacilli population. In dairy cows, the pH stabilization was associated with a lower availability of hydrogen capable of being transformed into protons, following a stimulation of propionogenesis and/or bacterial growth that consume hydrogen. During butyric SARA, improvement in pH was observed only in sheep supplemented with Lp + P63. This effect appeared to be due to a decrease in VFA production and S. bovis proportion. Moreover, the lower initial pH (pH <5.5) was probably optimal for DFMs action, which was not the case for the dairy cows for which the initial pH was between 5.9 and 6.1. For the dairy cows, diet digestion was improved when P63 and lactobacilli association were fed. Indeed, Lp + P63 increased the fibrolytic activities (cellulase, xylanase) and digestibility of organic matter, while Lr + P63 improved fiber digestion and decreased methane production by 25%. We did not observe any effect on animal performances, which was probably due to the Latin square design that is not the best to evaluate the DFMs effects on animal performances. Our results are the first to demonstrate the effectiveness of bacterial DFMs to secure and/or improve diet digestion and reduce methane production in ruminants. Moreover, it seems that the association of P63 with the lactobacilli strains is more effective. Finally, we validated our hypothesis that the effect and mode of action of bacterial DFMs to prevent SARA is conditioned by ruminal fermentation patterns.
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Abderzak Lettat. Efficacité et mode d'action des bactéries propioniques et / ou lactiques pour prévenir l'acidose latente chez le ruminant. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011CLF22120⟩. ⟨tel-00746197⟩

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