Aspects physiologiques et biochimiques de la tolérance à l'arsenic chez les plantes supérieures dans un contexte de phytostabilisation d'une friche industrielle

Abstract : This work aims to the establishment of a phytostabilization process on an old industrial site, "La Vieille Usine" in Auzon (43, France). The pedochemical characterization revealed a polymetallic pollution by As, Pb, Sb, Cd, Cu. The As, by its total content and its bioavailability, is considered as the most concentrated and toxic. A floristic study noted a metallicolous flora dominated by elective pseudometallophyte species such as Agrostis capillaris, the dominant specie, Equisetum arvense, or Euphorbiaceae. Broadly speaking, the majority of species on the industrial site has accumulated very low amounts of pollutants (As, Pb) in these shoots. To better understand the trace element effects on different plants, Agrostis capillaris, Solanum nigrum, Cannabis sativa and Vicia faba were grown on the Auzon’s soil under controlled conditions. These data highlighted (i) the sensitivity of V. faba and the tolerance of S. nigrum to trace element pollution; (ii) for C. sativa, the maintenance of its physiological activity but a slowdown of its growth; (iii) the adaptative tolerance of A. capillaris to soil pollution. In addition, a hydroponics culture of S. nigrum and V. faba in the presence of different concentrations and different oxidation degrees (arsenite and arsenate) of inorganic As allowed to identify two main effects of As at physiological and biochemical level. First, it alters the structure and function of PSII, which seems more sensitive to As(III), and, secondly, it inhibits the carboxylase and oxygenase activities of Rubisco, the main target of As(V). These data were then used to conduct an in-situ experiment based on a phytostabilization process on the industrial wasteland of Auzon. The effects of the combination of an grassland species association with a zerovalent iron shot and/or compost amendment were characterized. The addition of iron shot on the soil completed with compost decreased the available fraction of As and to a lesser extent Sb. Moreover, the amendments allowed to enrich the soil with mineral and organic elements and to facilitate the establishment of vegetal cover composed by tolerant plants with an exclusion phenotype. This in-situ experience enabled to highlight the feasibility of a phytostabilization method in the depollution of industrial sites as in their enhancement.
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Annabelle Austruy. Aspects physiologiques et biochimiques de la tolérance à l'arsenic chez les plantes supérieures dans un contexte de phytostabilisation d'une friche industrielle. Sciences agricoles. Université Blaise Pascal - Clermont-Ferrand II, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012CLF22244⟩. ⟨tel-00745701⟩

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