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A representação do feminino heroico na literatura e no cinema : uma análise das obras Quarto de Despejo, diário de uma favelada (Carolina Maria de Jesus), Estamira e Estamira para Todos e para Ninguém (Marcos Prado), De Salto Alto e Tudo sobre Minha Mãe (Pedro Almodóvar)

Abstract : The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the representation of the heroine figure through five works of cinema and literature: High Heels (1991) and All About My Mother (1999), both Spanish fiction films directed by Pedro Almodóvar; Estamira (2004) and Estamira para Todos e para Ninguém (2004), respectively full-length and medium-length Brazilian documentaries, directed by Marcos Prado; and Child of the Dark: the Diary of Carolina Maria de Jesus (1960)3, a Brazilian book written by Carolina Maria de Jesus and edited by Audálio Dantas.I intend to analyze, among other aspects, how these literary and cinematographic pieces assemble and display their respective protagonists throughout the entire narrative: Rebeca (High Heels), Manuela (All about My Mother), Estamira (Estamira and Estamira para Todos e para Ninguém) and Carolina (Child of the dark: the diary of Carolina Maria deJesus).This thesis is segmented in four chapters, the first being the one which concerns the theories of representation; the conceptualization and representation of the heroic being; the peculiarities applicable to each genre (melodrama, documentary, autobiographical diary), and the interchange that each piece establishes with other types of art throughout the narrative. For the second chapter, I contemplate the analysis of identitary issues concerning the main characters’ universe, heeding the on-going dialogue from the given parts towards the reader/ spectator. For the third and fourth chapter, I analyse the strategies of distancing and approaching of the heroines regarding the reader/spectator, strategies which have beenpinpointed all over the cinematic and literary texts.High Heels is a film, which tells the story of two women - mother and daughter - who experience different moments. The mother, the famous singer and actress, Becky Del Páramo (Marisa Paredes), returns to Madrid, her hometown, where she wishes to spend the last days of her life. There she reunites with her daughter Rebeca (Victoria Abril) after having spent 15years apart. The daughter failed to overcome the desire to emulate her mother.All about My Mother represents the suffering of Manuela (Cecília Roth), who has lost her only son, Estéban (Eloy Azorín), just before she tells him all the truth concerning his father. The woman then decides to come back to Barcelona to meet her ex-husband, Estéban. The man, soon before impregnating her, had decided to turn into the transvestite Lola (Eloy Azorín).Estamira and Estamira para Todos e para Ninguém narrates the story of Estamira Gomes de Souza (1939 -2011), a Brazilian woman who has a mental disorder and has been working for more than twenty years at a landfill in Jardim Gramacho, in Rio de Janeiro, under appalling living conditions.Child of the dark: the diary of Carolina Maria de Jesus reveals the daily chronicles of Carolina Maria de Jesus from 1955 to 1960. The editing was done by Audálio Dantas, who has read all the twenty notebooks, in which the writer’s reports were found. In the book, Carolina documents her everyday life as a slum woman besides her three children, and others,who share the same eagerness to get over the extreme poverty in Canindé, an extinct shanty town, in São Paulo.Having in mind the process of unveiling the implicit intentions of the films, I choose to use as a methodology the analysis of the characters’ speech and the observation of other literary or cinematographic components, such as gesture, screenplay, settings, costume, location, atmosphere, and assembly. This analysis is based in theorists such as Michel Foucault, Stuart Hall, Mikhail Bakhtin, Kathryn Woodward, Antonio Candido and Anatol Rosenfeld
Keywords : Identity Femininity
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Mônica Horta Azeredo. A representação do feminino heroico na literatura e no cinema : uma análise das obras Quarto de Despejo, diário de uma favelada (Carolina Maria de Jesus), Estamira e Estamira para Todos e para Ninguém (Marcos Prado), De Salto Alto e Tudo sobre Minha Mãe (Pedro Almodóvar). Literature. Université Rennes 2, 2012. Portuguese. ⟨NNT : 2012REN20036⟩. ⟨tel-00745051⟩

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