# Étude de la conjecture de Seymour sur le second voisinage

Abstract : Let D be a digraph without digons (directed cycles of length 2). In 1990, Seymour [1] conjectured that D has a vertex whose first out-neighborhood is at most as large as its second out-neighborhood. Such a vertex is said to have the second neighborhood property (SNP). This conjecture is known as the second neighborhood conjecture (SNC). This conjecture, if true, would imply a weakening of a particular case (but important) of a long standing conjecture proposed by Caccetta and H aggkvist in 1978, which states that every digraph D with minimum out-degree at least jV (D)j=k has a directed cycle of length at most k. The special case is when k = 3 and the weakening requires both minimum out-degree and minimum in-degree at least jV (D)j=k [2]. Seymour's conjecture restricted to tournaments is known as Dean's conjecture [1]. In 1996, Fisher [3] gave a probabilistic proof to Dean's conjecture. In 2003 Chen, Shen and Yuster [4] proved that every digraph contains a vertex v such that d+(v) _ d++(v), where = 0:657298::: is the unique real root of the equation 2x3 + x2 1 = 0. In 2000, another proof of Dean's conjecture was given by Havet and Thomassé using a tool called median order [5]. They proved that the last vertex of this order, called a feed vertex, has second out-neighborhood at least as large as its first out-neighborhood. Median order is found to be a useful tool not only for the class of tournaments but for other classes of digraphs. In 2007, Fidler and Yuster [6] used also median orders to prove Seymour's conjecture for the class of digraphs with minimum degree jV (D)j 2 (i.e. D is a digraph missing a matching) and tournaments minus another subtournament. El Sahili conjectured that for every digraph D there is a completion T of D and a median order of T whose feed vertex has the SNP in D. Clearly, El Sahili's conjecture (EC) implies SNC. However, as one can observe, EC suggests a method (an approach) for solving the SNC, which we will call the completion approach. In general, following this approach, we orient the missing edges of D in some 'proper' way, to obtain a tournament T. Then we consider a particular feed vertex (clearly, it has the SNP in T) and try to prove that it has the SNP in D as well. Clearly, the result of Havet and Thomassé shows that EC is true for tournaments and the result of Fidler and Yuster [6] shows that EC holds for tournaments minus another subtournament. We will verify EC for the class 1 of tournaments missing a matching. So EC is verified for all the classes of digraphs where the SNC is known to hold non trivially. We will be interested also in the weighted version of EC and SNC. In reality, Fidler and Yuster [6] used dependency digraphs as a supplementary tool for proving the SNC for digraphs missing a matching and the fact that the weighted SNC holds for tournaments. We define dependency digraphs in a more general way, which is suitable to any digraph, and use them in our contribution to Seymour's conjecture. We also use the median order as a tool in our contribution. Using these two tools, and following the completion approach, we prove the weighted version of EC, and consequently the SNC, for several classes of digraphs: Digraphs missing a generalized star, sun, star or a complete graph. In addition, we prove EC, and consequently the SNC for digraphs missing a comb, and digraphs whose missing graph is a complete graph minus two independent edges or the edges of a cycle of length five. Moreover, we prove it for digraphs missing n disjoint stars under some conditions. Weaker conditions are required for n = 1; 2; 3. In some cases, we exhibit at least two vertices with the SNP.
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Salman Ghazal. Étude de la conjecture de Seymour sur le second voisinage. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I; Université libanaise, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10356⟩. ⟨tel-00744560⟩

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