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Theses

Transformation du glycérol par catalyse hétérogène : aspects théoriques et expérimentaux

Abstract : This thesis reports a study of the heterogeneously catalysed conversion of glycerol into 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) and lactic acid (LA). The mechanism and the first step of the reaction are especially debated, as it can be either dehydration or dehydrogenation. It is expected that these elementary steps can be influenced by pH variations and by the nature of the gas phase. These parameters were consequently investigated experimentally in the presence of a carbon supported rhodium catalyst. On the other hand, there was a lack of knowledge in the behaviour of glycerol at the surface of the metallic catalyst. A theoretical approach on a model Rh(111) surface was thus implemented in the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) to look over the alementary reactions and to calculate the corresponding transition states. The combination of experimental and theoretical results has shown that dehydrogenation into lyceraldehyde is the first step of the reaction on the Rh/C catalyst in basic media under He or H2 atmosphere. The study was then extended to carbon supported iridium catalyst that lead to the best 1,2-PDO and LA yields. The use of iridium catalyst supported on calcium carbonate allowed obtaining higher yields in LA, but catalytic performances were lower. This latter catalyst was surprisingly quite active when performing the reaction in neutral water, which provides opportunities for a greener synthesis of LA. Last, the predictive aspects of the theoretical chemistry were investigated to determine whether the reactivity of this polyalcohol can be modelized by the reactivity of a simpler monoalcohol on the surface.
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Florian Auneau. Transformation du glycérol par catalyse hétérogène : aspects théoriques et expérimentaux. Autre. Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LYO10189⟩. ⟨tel-00744531⟩

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