Implémentation rigoureuse des systèmes temps-réels

Abstract : Context: Real-time systems are systems that are subject to "real-time constraints"— e.g. operational deadlines from event to system response. Often real-time response times are understood to be in the order of milliseconds and sometimes microseconds. Building real-time systems requires the use of design and implementation methodologies that ensure the property of meeting timing constraints e.g. a system has to react within user-defined bounds such as deadlines and periodicity. A missed deadline in hard real-time systems is catastrophic, like for example in automotive systems, for example if an airbag is fined too late in a car accident, even one ms too late leads to serious repercussions. In soft real-time systems it can lead to a significant loss of performance and QoS like for example in networked multimedia systems. Contribution: We provide a rigorous design and implementation method for the implementation of real-time systems. The implementation is generated from a given real-time application software and a target platform by using two models: * An abstract model representing the behavior of real-time software as a timed automaton. The latter describes user-defined platform-independent timing constraints. Its transitions are timeless and correspond to the execution of statements of the real-time software. * A physical model representing the behavior of the real-time software running on a given platform. It is obtained by assigning execution times to the transitions of the abstract model. A necessary condition for implementability is time-safety, that is, any (timed) execution sequence of the physical model is also an execution sequence of the abstract model. Time-safety means that the platform is fast enough to meet the timing requirements. As execution times of actions are not known exactly, time-safety is checked for worst-case execution times of actions by making an assumption of time-robustness: time-safety is preserved when speed of the execution platform increases. For given real-time software and execution platform corresponding to a time-robust model, we define an execution Engine that coordinates the execution of the application software so as to meet its timing constraints. Furthermore, in case of non-robustness, the execution Engine can detect violations of time-safety and stop execution. We have implemented the execution Engine for BIP programs with real-time constraints. We have validated the method for the design and implementation of the Dala rover robot. We show the benefits obtained in terms of CPU utilization and amelioration in the latency of reaction.
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Tesnim Abdellatif. Implémentation rigoureuse des systèmes temps-réels. Autre [cs.OH]. Université de Grenoble, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012GRENM037⟩. ⟨tel-00744508⟩

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