Analyse de cycle de vie des énergies alternatives pour l'automobile et propositions méthodologiques pour une meilleure évaluation des impacts locaux

Abstract : This PhD thesis conducted thanks to a CIFRE contract between the company Renault and the PPRIME Institute (UPR CNRS 3346, ISAE-ENSMA-Université de Poitiers), is focused on life cycle analyses for automotive fuels and alternative energies. The individual mobility is facing numerous challenges: global warming, urban pollution, depletion of resources, etc. Therefore, different alternative are now proposed to cope with these challenges: biofuels, hydrogen, electric vehicles, etc. LCA is a tool that allows assessing the environmental impacts of a product system. This PhD thesis is focused on taking into account the local impacts linked with the production and the consumption of diesel, gasoline (these two latters being the reference fuels), biofuels and electricity. It especially deals with the issues associated with the relevance of these impacts, for instance by trying to establish which impacts to select and how to enhance them (difference between urban and rural emissions or between high and near-ground sources). The second part of this PhD thesis studies the impact of the car use, by particularly focusing on the local pollutants emitted according to the aftertreatment standards and the driving cycle. All of this aims at obtaining LCA results that are more relevant and that can be more easily interpreted for a reliable decision-making process compatible with Renault's main strategic issues. The results show a complex environmental footprint: while renewable electricity provides true benefits compared with conventional fuels, fossil electricity has a mixed result, depending on the impact which is considered. Moreover, biofuels have a stronger environmental impact than fossil fuels. Finally, the rural / urban distinction highlights the benefit on human health associated with electric vehicles.
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Florent Querini. Analyse de cycle de vie des énergies alternatives pour l'automobile et propositions méthodologiques pour une meilleure évaluation des impacts locaux. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ESMA0012⟩. ⟨tel-00744220⟩

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