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Démographie, sénescence et changements globaux chez deux espèces extrêmement longévives

Abstract : This thesis investigates the effects of age-related in particular associated with senescence in two extremely long-lived species: the black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) and the wandering albatrosses (Diomedea exulans). Initially we seek to determine the variations of different life-history traits, demographic and morphological age. A multi-trait and multi-state approach allows us to model changes in traits with age, taking into account the effects of sex or reproductive status of the previous year in capture-recapture models. In a second step, we relate these patterns to agedependent changes in the environment in terms of climatic fluctuations, oceanographic and anthropogenic activities (industrial fishing), to determine whether based on their age individuals are influenced differentially. Finally the differential variations identified in demographic traits due to environmental fluctuations according to age are incorporated into population matrix models to determine if and how extreme events can alter the dynamics and structure of populations. This work based on data collected from longitudinal and transversal for 50 years in the French Southern Territories brings new elements on the evolutionary ecology of senescence in the wild and how age can affect the population response to global changes in these highly endangered species.
Mots-clés : Démographie
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Submitted on : Monday, October 22, 2012 - 2:41:06 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-00744186, version 1

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Déborah Pardo. Démographie, sénescence et changements globaux chez deux espèces extrêmement longévives. Sciences de l'environnement. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2012. Français. ⟨tel-00744186⟩

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