Mise au point de mesures de variables intermédiaires pour les essais cliniques dans la dépendance à la cocaïne : craving et symptômes psychotiques

Abstract : Cocaine dependence is a growing public health concern in France. There is no pharmacological treatment validated for cocaine dependence treatment. Clinical trials require that validated methods are used to ascertain the efficacy of new drugs that are tested. There was no validated tool available to conduct pharmacological trials for cocaine dependence in French. We conceptualized and validated questionnaires that could be used as surrogate endpoints in pharmacological trials for cocaine dependence. We choose to work on two types of surrogate variables: craving and psychotic symptoms.Craving is the overwhelming desire to use a drug. It is a psychological construct that can be used as a biomarker of dependence. We designed a craving questionnaire in French named OCCS (Obsessive Compulsive Cocaïne Scale) after the work of several research teams working in the field of alcohol dependence. We validated this questionnaire in a sample of 119 cocaine addicts in a clinical setting (Vorspan et al 2012). We could demonstrate that the scores obtained on this questionnaire were correlated to those obtain on a visual analogue scale of craving. We could also demonstrate that the scores were higher in cocaine dependent that in cocaine abusing subjects. Lastly, we could demonstrate that the scores were time-sensitive. We used this questionnaire OCCS in an open-label trial of aripiprazole in 10 non-schizophrenic crack dependent patients (Vorspan et al 2008). We propose that this questionnaire could be used in clinical trials assessing the efficacy of various therapeutic interventions in cocaine dependent subjects, pharmacological treatments, but also deep brain stimulation (Vorspan et al 2011) and psychological interventions. Psychotic symptoms are composed of various phenomenons (hallucinations, delusions and behavioural modifications). We choose to adapt in French a validated questionnaire that assesses psychotic symptoms occurring between a few minutes to a few hours after cocaine intake: the SAPS-CIP (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms for Cocaine-Induced Psychosis). We could demonstrate that those symptoms are frequent but of variable intensity in a sample of French cocaine addicts in a clinical setting (Vorspan et al, soumis). We could also demonstrate that those symptoms are change sensitive (Vorspan et al 2011). We hypothesized that there is a genetic vulnerability to cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms, and that being sensitive to the occurrence of psychotic symptoms could be a protective factor toward the development of cocaine dependence (Brousse et al 2010). The variability of cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms helps to conceptualize a pharmacogenetic model of drug dependence. We propose that those two questionnaires (OCCS for craving and SAPS-CIP for psychotic symptoms) could be used in clinical trial in cocaine dependent subjects. It seems very helpful indeed, knowing the clinical pattern of cocaine dependence, to design trails aimed at reducing or suppressing craving and psychotic symptoms. Reducing or suppressing craving could be a surrogate endpoint for cocaine abstinence. Reducing or suppressing cocaine-induced psychotic symptoms could reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with cocaine use.
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Florence Vorspan. Mise au point de mesures de variables intermédiaires pour les essais cliniques dans la dépendance à la cocaïne : craving et symptômes psychotiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université René Descartes - Paris V, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PA05P612⟩. ⟨tel-00744102⟩



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