Abstract : In France, biodiversity education appears as a priority linked with the degradation of biodiversity. The biodiversity education in primary school is attached to both the scientific topics and sustainable development. The expected learning follows two basic dimensions: bio-ecological knowledges and behaviors related to the expected knowledges. However, numerous studies show the significance of affective dimension in learning, especially regarding the emotional relationship with the objects of study. In this context, this thesis explores the cognitive, affective and behavioral learning in biodiversity education. The search field is restricted to the study of arthropods in primary school. What are the learning of primary students in biodiversity education in the case of the study of arthropods, according to the description, analysis and articulation of three dimensions: knowledge, emotions and behaviors? To answer this question, conceptual framework is based on the analysis of knowledges, on the model of emotional maturity with the studied objects and the operationalization of behavior by positions and intentions to act. Four aims are proceeded to answer this issue: a) describe and analyze each of the three dimensions in the context of the study of arthropods in classroom, b) identify possible correlations between these three dimensions, c) identify specific patterns of learners and d) verify the effects of a study of arthropods on learning, according to these three dimensions. The methodology follows two perspectives: a quantitative multivariate analysis of survey responses and a qualitative analysis of answers during semi-structured interviews. The results of this study have clarified the three-dimensional knowledge, emotions and behaviors and highlighted the interplay between their relations. The measurement and analysis of each dimension pointed significant differences depending on the type of instruction received in classroom. There are significant correlations between scientific knowledge, emotional maturity and behavior according to the type of education. Specific profiles of learners linking knowledges and emotions have been identified, as well as general patterns involving the three dimensions. We noted the importance of emotional relationship with the learning objects that, instead of disrupting the knowledge, would rather tend to strengthen them while contributing to build citizenship and responsible behavior.