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Dynamique et bilan des Elements Traces Métalliques (ETM) dans des écosystèmes forestiers français. Modélisation, spéciation et charges critiques.

Abstract : Trace Metals (TM: Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) are dispersed in the atmosphere due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. Forest ecosystems can receive atmospheric inputs, even if they are located far from direct emission sources. In fact, forest ecosystems are particularly sensitive to atmospheric inputs since forest cover can interact with atmospheric pollution. Forest ecosystems are protected from TM atmospheric inputs through the definition of Critical Loads. TM impact on forest ecosystem is linked to their dynamic at the atmosphere/vegetation and soil/solution interfaces. Indeed, forest cover modifies atmospheric inputs. Moreover, it is through soil solution that TM are available to the biosphere and can reach ground and surface waters. During this work, TM content and speciation were determined in diverse compartments of the ecosystem (open field precipitation, throughfall, soil, soil solution and vegetation) on six forested catchments. TM partitioning between total and extractable content and soil solution, was studied in relation with soil parameters. pH was the most significant parameter for most TM extractability and solubility prediction. Cu and Pb solubility was also greatly influenced by complexation with organic colloids. Atmospheric inputs are moderate and regional differences reveal a stronger atmospheric influence on the North-East of France. Forest cover greatly modifies atmospheric inputs. Some fluxes (Cd, Ni, Cu and Zn) are reduced because of direct assimilation by forest canopy. Other fluxes (Pb, Cr and Sb) are increased following dry deposition accumulation on forest canopy. Elemental budget at the plot scale depend on soil type, TM solubility in soil solution and TM mobility in trees. Critical limits and loads have been evaluated and comparison with current soil solution concentration and atmospheric inputs revealed no exceedance.
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Laure Gandois. Dynamique et bilan des Elements Traces Métalliques (ETM) dans des écosystèmes forestiers français. Modélisation, spéciation et charges critiques.. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2009. Français. ⟨tel-00741901⟩

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